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In the common law world, Albert Venn Dicey (1835–1922) is known as the high priest of orthodox constitutional theory, as an ideological and nationalistic positivist. In his analytical coldness, his celebration of sovereign power, and his incessant drive to organize and codify legal rules separate from moral values or political realities, Dicey is an uncanny figure. This book challenges this received view of Dicey. Through a re-examination of his life and his 1885 book Law of the Constitution, the high priest Dicey is defrocked and a more human Dicey steps forward to offer alternative ways of reading his canonical text, who struggled to appreciate law as a form of reasoned discourse that integrates values of legality and authority through methods of ordinary legal interpretation. The result is a unique common law constitutional discourse through which assertions of sovereign power are conditioned by moral aspirations associated with the rule of law.
Veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) typically report a poorer treatment response than those who have not served in the Armed Forces. A possible explanation is that veterans often present with complex symptoms of PTSD. ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD (CPTSD) have not previously been explored in a military sample.
This study aimed to validate the only measure of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD, the International Trauma Questionnaire, and assess the rates of the disorder in a sample of treatment-seeking UK veterans.
A sample of help-seeking veterans (N = 177) was recruited from a national charity in the UK that provides clinical services to veterans. Participants completed measures of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD as well as childhood and adult traumatic life events. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the latent structure of PTSD and CPTSD symptoms, and rates of the disorders were estimated.
The majority of the participants (70.7%) reported symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of either PTSD or CPTSD. Results indicated the presence of two separate disorders, with CPTSD being more frequently endorsed (56.7%) than PTSD (14.0%). CPTSD was more strongly associated with childhood trauma than PTSD.
The International Trauma Questionnaire can adequately distinguish between PTSD and CPTSD within clinical samples of veterans. There is a need to explore the effectiveness of existing and new treatments for CPTSD in military personnel.
The consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables can acutely lower blood pressure and improve mediators shown to optimise vascular health. However, we do not yet understand the impact of long-term habitual dietary nitrate intake and its association with CVD. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to examine the relationship between habitual dietary nitrate intakes and risk of CHD in women from the Nurses’ Health Study. We prospectively followed 62 535 women who were free from diabetes, CVD and cancer at baseline in 1986. Information on diet was updated every 4 years with validated FFQ. The main outcome was CHD defined by the occurrence of non-fatal myocardial infarction or fatal CHD. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI. During 26 years of follow-up, 2257 cases of CHD were identified. When comparing the highest quintile of nitrate intake with the lowest quintile, in aged-adjusted analysis there was a protective association for CHD (RR=0·77, 95 % CI 0·68, 0·97; P=0·0002) which dissipated after further adjustment for smoking, physical activity, BMI and race (RR=0·91; 95 % CI 0·80, 1·04; P=0·27). This magnitude of association was further attenuated once we adjusted for the Alternative Healthy Eating Index excluding vegetable and fruit consumption (RR=1·04, 95 % CI 0·91, 1·20; P=0·34). Dietary nitrate intake was not related to the risk of CHD after adjustment for other lifestyle and non-vegetable dietary factors in a large group of US women.
Though not often discussed explicitly in literature, sample handling and preparation for advanced characterization techniques is a significant challenge for radiological materials. In this contribution, a detailed description is given of method development associated with characterization of highly radioactive and, in some cases, hygroscopic oxides of technetium. Details are given on developed protocols, fixtures, and tooling designed for x-ray and neutron diffraction, x-ray absorption, Raman spectroscopy, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, and electron paramagnetic resonance. In some cases, multiple iterations of improved sample holder design are described. Lessons learned in handling Tc compounds for these and similar characterization methods are discussed.
Background: Few studies have tracked stroke survivors through transitions across the health system and identified the most common trajectories and quality of care received. The objectives of our study were to examine the trajectories that incident stroke patients experience and to quantify the extent to which their care adhered to the best practices for stroke care. Methods: A population-based cohort of first-ever stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients from the 2012/13 Ontario Stroke Audit was linked to administrative databases using an encrypted health card number to identify dominant trajectories (N=12,362). All trajectories began in the emergency department (ED) and were defined by the transitions that followed immediately after the ED. Quality indicators were calculated to quantify best practice adherence within trajectories. Results: Six trajectories of stroke care were identified with significant variability in patient characteristics and quality of care received. Almost two-thirds (64.5%) required hospital admission. Trajectories that only involved the ED had the lowest rates of brain and carotid artery imaging (91.5 and 44.2%, respectively). Less than 20% of patients in trajectories involving hospital admissions received care on a stroke unit. The trajectory involving inpatient rehabilitation received suboptimal secondary prevention measures. Conclusions: There are six main trajectories stroke patients follow, and adherence to best practices varies by trajectory. Trajectories resulting in patients being transitioned to home care following ED management only are least likely and those including inpatient rehabilitation are most likely to receive stroke best practices. Increased time in facility-based care results in greater access to best practices. Stroke patients receiving only ED care require closer follow-up by stroke specialists.
Early Archaic human skeletal remains found in a burial context in Lapa do
Santo in east-central Brazil provide a rare glimpse into the lives of
hunter-gatherer communities in South America, including their rituals for
dealing with the dead. These included the reduction of the body by means of
mutilation, defleshing, tooth removal, exposure to fire and possibly
cannibalism, followed by the secondary burial of the remains according to
strict rules. In a later period, pits were filled with disarticulated bones
of a single individual without signs of body manipulation, demonstrating
that the region was inhabited by dynamic groups in constant transformation
over a period of centuries.
Management of long-term depression is a significant problem in primary care populations with considerable on-going morbidity, but few studies have focused on this group.
To evaluate whether structured, nurse-led proactive care of patients with chronic depression in primary care improves outcomes.
Participants with chronic/recurrent major depression or dysthymia were recruited from 42 UK general practices and randomised to general practitioner (GP) treatment as usual or nurse intervention over 2 years (the ProCEED trial, trial registration: ISRCTN36610074).
In total 282 people received the intervention and there were 276 controls. At 24 months there was no significant improvement in Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) score or quality of life (Euroquol-EQ-VAS), but a significant improvement in functional impairment (Work and Social Activity Schedule, WSAS) of 2.5 (95% CI 0.6–4.3, P = 0.010) in the intervention group. The impact per practice-nurse intervention session was –0.37 (95% CI –0.68 to –0.07, P = 0.017) on the BDI-II score and –0.33 (95% CI –0.55 to –0.10, P = 0.004) on the WSAS score, indicating that attending all 10 intervention sessions could lead to a BDI-II score reduction of 3.7 points compared with controls.
The intervention improved functioning in these patients, the majority of whom had complex long-term difficulties, but only had a significant impact on depressive symptoms in those engaging with the full intervention.
Background: The emphasis regarding intracranial neuroendoscopy has been traditionally advocated and focused on the role in pediatric patients, although a significant usage has developed in adult patients. In this study, we examine and contrast the role of predominantly intracranial neuroendoscopy in both a pediatric and adult population with a minimum postprocedure follow-up of 5 years.
Methods: A retrospective review was conducted for patients in the two hospitals that manage neurosurgical care for Southern Alberta, Canada, undergoing neuroendoscopic surgery between 1994 and 2008. The pediatric group was defined as age ≤17 years and the adult group as age ≥18 years.
Results: A total of 273 patients who underwent a total of 330 procedures with a mean postprocedure follow-up of 12.9 years were identified. There were 161 adult and 112 pediatric patients, and both groups underwent surgery by the same surgeons. The most common procedure was endoscopic third ventriculostomy, accounting for 55% of procedures. One postoperative death occurred in an adult patient. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy success 1-year postprocedure was 81%, with only three late-term failures. Postoperative infection was the most common serious complication (two pediatric/four adult patients). Adult and pediatric patients had similar major complication rates (4.2% vs 5.7%, p=0.547). Conclusions: Neuroendoscopy overall had a similar role in both pediatric and adult neurosurgical populations, with the most commonly associated complication being infection. Neuroendoscopy is an important therapeutic modality in the management of appropriate adult patients.
We present the first results from SWAN: “Survey of Water and Ammonia in Nearby galaxies”. Nearby galaxies are conveniently located to probe molecular gas properties on scales of 10 to 200 pc, which are appropriate for the study of Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs). The resolution of the Very Large Array in D and C configurations corresponds to a few 10s of parsecs in these galaxies. To advance studies of galaxy evolution it is paramount to understand how processes in the molecular Interstellar Medium(ISM) and star formation are linked on these scales. We have observed the metastable transitions of ammonia and the 22GHz water maser line in four nearby galaxies: NGC 253, IC 342, NGC 2146, and NGC 6946 using the VLA. These galaxies were chosen to span an order of magnitude in star formation rate, and a range of galactic ecosystems. We use the ammonia transitions to derive kinetic temperatures, which exposes the heating and cooling balance of the ISM. We then aim to relate these conditions to energetic feedback from star formation as indicated by water masers.
Currently, our analysis is focused on NGC 253. NGC 253 is a barred spiral starburst galaxy with a nucleated star formation rate (SFR) of ≈ 3M⊙ per year. We use a distance of 3.9Mpc for analysis. We have observed ammonia transitions (1,1) to (5,5) and the 22GHz water maser line with a resolution of ≈63pc. We have identified nine regions across the nucleated starburst for study. The ammonia (3,3) line appears to be masing in the centermost 200pc. We have identified two regions of water maser emission. The first region is a minor axis extension, about the center of the galaxy, and is very close to the outflow. By means of these measurements, we gain an understanding of the molecular ISM associated with the nucleated starburst environment in NGC 253.
The link between childhood obesity and both television viewing and television advertising have previously been examined. We sought to investigate the frequency and type of food and beverage placements in children-specific television broadcasts and, in particular, differences between programme genres.
Content of five weekdays of children-specific television broadcasting on both UK (BBC) and Irish (RTE) television channels was summarized. Food and beverage placements were coded based on type of product, product placement, product use and characters involved. A comparison was made between different programme genres: animated, cartoon, child-specific, film, quiz, tween and young persons’ programming.
A total of 1155 (BBC=450; RTE=705) cues were recorded giving a cue every 4·2 min, an average of 12·3 s/cue. The genre with most cues recorded was cartoon programming (30·8 %). For the majority of genres, cues related to sweet snacks (range 1·8–23·3 %) and sweets/candy (range 3·6–25·8 %) featured highly. Fast-food (18·0 %) and sugar-sweetened beverage (42·3 %) cues were observed in a high proportion of tween programming. Celebratory/social motivation factors (range 10–40 %) were most common across all genres while there were low proportions of cues based on reward, punishment or health-related motivating factors.
The study provides evidence for the prominence of energy-dense/nutrient-poor foods and beverages in children’s programming. Of particular interest is the high prevalence of fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage cues associated with tween programming. These results further emphasize the need for programme makers to provide a healthier image of foods and beverages in children’s television.
In response to the increasing demand for 14C analysis of samples containing less than 25 μg C, ultra-small graphitization reactors with an internal volume of ∼0.8 mL were developed at NOSAMS. For samples containing 6 to 25 μg C, these reactors convert CO2 to graphitic carbon in approximately 30 min. Although we continue to refine reaction conditions to improve yield, the reactors produce graphite targets that are successfully measured by AMS. Graphite targets produced with the ultra-small reactors are measured by using the Cs sputter source on the CFAMS instrument at NOSAMS where beam current was proportional to sample mass. We investigated the contribution of blank carbon from the ultra-small reactors and estimate it to be 0.3 ± 0.1 μg C with an Fm value of 0.43 ± 0.3. We also describe equations for blank correction and propagation of error associated with this correction. With a few exceptions for samples in the range of 6 to 7 μg C, we show that corrected Fm values agree with expected Fm values within uncertainty for samples containing 6–100 μg C.
Background: Cognitive dysfunction is a common complaint associated with obstructive hydrocephalus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) on the neuropsychological outcome in patients presenting with cognitive decline and obstructive hydrocephalus. Methods: A retrospective review of patients who underwent ETV at the University of Calgary and had both pre and post operative neuropsychological testing, was completed. Presenting clinical features, etiology of hydrocephalus and ventricle size utilizing frontal occipital horn ratio was obtained. Outcomes and complications of the ETV were recorded. Detailed measures of intelligence, attention and concentration, executive function, visual and verbal memory, language functions and fine motor skills were completed. Post treatment change was determined utilizing Reliable Change Index. Results: A total of 13 patients were identified. Etiology of the hydrocephalus was aqueductal stenosis in 8 and tectal glioma in 4. The majority of patients (11 of 13, 85%) demonstrated cognitive dysfunction at the borderline (≤1 SD) or impairment level (≤1.5 SDs) in at least one domain. Nine patients (69%) showed reliable improvement in at least one cognitive domain. The greatest improvement was seen with visual memory (42%). One quarter to one third of patients demonstrated improvement on tests of intelligence quotient, verbal memory, attention and concentration, and executive function. Two patients declined in executive functioning. Ventricle size improved in eight patients. Conclusions: ETV is a safe effective procedure, capable of producing reliable improvements in cognitive dysfunction with hydrocephalus. Patients with cognitive complaints alone may benefit from ETV.
People who have read War and Peace more than once, and enjoyed it immensely, can often scarcely remember a thing about it.
The concept of redundancy employed in this essay is the one used in mathematics and linguistics to designate symbols that do not add information to a sequence. One of the hazards of teaching twentieth-century war literature is the tacit inference of redundancy by readers, namely that the representational conventions as well as the facts and values represented are ‘predictable from … context’. The claim that twentieth-century war writing is made superfluous by War and Peace (1869) is polemical, but it is also intended to do serious work: to draw attention to representations of war which are not predictable from context, and to renew questions such as why representing war as irrational, murderous activity is unefficacious, and why we would imagine otherwise.
The designs of War and Peace as war writing can be recognised as early as 1853, when Tolstoy published a story drawing on his own military experience in the Caucasus:
War always interested me: not war in the sense of manoeuvres devised by great generals – my imagination refused to follow such immense movements, I did not understand them – but the reality of war, the actual killing. I was more interested to know in what way and under the influence of what feeling one soldier kills another than to know how the armies were arranged at Austerlitz and Borodino.