To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The COVID-19 pandemic and mitigation measures are likely to have a marked effect on mental health. It is important to use longitudinal data to improve inferences.
To quantify the prevalence of depression, anxiety and mental well-being before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Also, to identify groups at risk of depression and/or anxiety during the pandemic.
Data were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) index generation (n = 2850, mean age 28 years) and parent generation (n = 3720, mean age 59 years), and Generation Scotland (n = 4233, mean age 59 years). Depression was measured with the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire in ALSPAC and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 in Generation Scotland. Anxiety and mental well-being were measured with the Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment-7 and the Short Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale.
Depression during the pandemic was similar to pre-pandemic levels in the ALSPAC index generation, but those experiencing anxiety had almost doubled, at 24% (95% CI 23–26%) compared with a pre-pandemic level of 13% (95% CI 12–14%). In both studies, anxiety and depression during the pandemic was greater in younger members, women, those with pre-existing mental/physical health conditions and individuals in socioeconomic adversity, even when controlling for pre-pandemic anxiety and depression.
These results provide evidence for increased anxiety in young people that is coincident with the pandemic. Specific groups are at elevated risk of depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is important for planning current mental health provisions and for long-term impact beyond this pandemic.
Amazona lilacina is a threatened species endemic to Ecuador, existing across a patchwork of mangroves, lowland coastal forests, agricultural and community owned land. The species was described in 2014 and listed as ‘Endangered’ on the IUCN Red List, however, full assessment of the population was lacking. Using a combination of field observations, roost surveys and community questionnaires, conducted over the last 20 years, we provide up-to-date information on the species’ Extent of Occurrence, estimate its global population size, and evaluate its level of threat. Our results suggest the species occurs across an area of 19,890 km2 in three distinct geographically isolated subpopulations. Roost surveys across the range estimate the minimum remaining population at 741–1,090 individuals and we present evidence to suggest a 60% decline over the past 19 years in one part of the species’ range. We conducted community questionnaires with 427 people from 52 communities. The presence of pet parrots was reported in 37 communities, including 17 communities which reported pet A. lilacina. From this we predict that over half of all communities within our study area keep parrots as pets and at least 96 communities keep A. lilacina. Our findings justify an IUCN Red Listing of at least ‘Endangered’ for this species and highlight the need for conservation support. In order to assess population health in more detail, further research is required to assess genetic diversity and roost dynamics, and to identify areas that may be important for feeding and nesting throughout the range. As many of these areas are likely to overlap with community owned land, we suggest that future conservation actions should revolve around, and be led by, these communities.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
Research in developmental neuropsychiatric conditions has revealed morphological and functional divergences in the brain. In some cases, the divergences occur due to one or two highly penetrant genomic mutations. In case such as autism, mutations in varied sets of genes may produce a convergent autism behavioral phenotype. It is thus likely that there may be other forms of non-genomic regulation of gene expression during development affecting behavioral outcome. Epigenetic gene regulation is one such mechanism that can permanently switch on or switch off gene expression, and these epigenetic changes can be inherited from one cell stage to another during differentiation, mimicking the effects of genomic mutations. Epigenetic gene regulation occurring during early developmental stages of cellular differentiation, which are highly sensitive to environmental cues, is the primary mechanism responsible for the phenomenon known as evolutionary development or “evo-devo.” This chapter discusses these mechanisms in the context of autism and the environmental factors that influence it.
Veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) typically report a poorer treatment response than those who have not served in the Armed Forces. A possible explanation is that veterans often present with complex symptoms of PTSD. ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD (CPTSD) have not previously been explored in a military sample.
This study aimed to validate the only measure of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD, the International Trauma Questionnaire, and assess the rates of the disorder in a sample of treatment-seeking UK veterans.
A sample of help-seeking veterans (N = 177) was recruited from a national charity in the UK that provides clinical services to veterans. Participants completed measures of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD as well as childhood and adult traumatic life events. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the latent structure of PTSD and CPTSD symptoms, and rates of the disorders were estimated.
The majority of the participants (70.7%) reported symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of either PTSD or CPTSD. Results indicated the presence of two separate disorders, with CPTSD being more frequently endorsed (56.7%) than PTSD (14.0%). CPTSD was more strongly associated with childhood trauma than PTSD.
The International Trauma Questionnaire can adequately distinguish between PTSD and CPTSD within clinical samples of veterans. There is a need to explore the effectiveness of existing and new treatments for CPTSD in military personnel.
Cognitive impairment associated with lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD) is well-supported by meta-analytic studies, but population-based estimates remain scarce. Previous UK Biobank studies have only shown limited evidence of cognitive differences related to probable MDD. Using updated cognitive and clinical assessments in UK Biobank, this study investigated population-level differences in cognitive functioning associated with lifetime MDD.
Associations between lifetime MDD and cognition (performance on six tasks and general cognitive functioning [g-factor]) were investigated in UK Biobank (N-range 7,457–14,836, age 45–81 years, 52% female), adjusting for demographics, education, and lifestyle. Lifetime MDD classifications were based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Within the lifetime MDD group, we additionally investigated relationships between cognition and (a) recurrence, (b) current symptoms, (c) severity of psychosocial impairment (while symptomatic), and (d) concurrent psychotropic medication use.
Lifetime MDD was robustly associated with a lower g-factor (β = −0.10, PFDR = 4.7 × 10−5), with impairments in attention, processing speed, and executive functioning (β ≥ 0.06). Clinical characteristics revealed differential profiles of cognitive impairment among case individuals; those who reported severe psychosocial impairment and use of psychotropic medication performed worse on cognitive tests. Severe psychosocial impairment and reasoning showed the strongest association (β = −0.18, PFDR = 7.5 × 10−5).
Findings describe small but robust associations between lifetime MDD and lower cognitive performance within a population-based sample. Overall effects were of modest effect size, suggesting limited clinical relevance. However, deficits within specific cognitive domains were more pronounced in relation to clinical characteristics, particularly severe psychosocial impairment.
Multiple sclerosis is the leading non-traumatic cause of disability in young adults, affecting up to 100,000 Canadians. This chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system leads to irreversible neurologic disability if inadequately controlled. Though many current medications are available that reduce inflammatory damage, most patients continue to show some evidence of disease activity and accrue disability. In this review, we discuss the role of immune ablation followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), a therapeutic option for select patients with a more aggressive disease course. By “resetting” the immune system with a variety of ablative conditioning regimens, followed by immune reconstitution, this therapy has shown a durable response in halting evidence of inflammatory activity in most patients, without the need for continued disease-modifying therapies (DMT). Since the introduction of this therapy, there have been advances in patient selection and supportive care, such that morbidity has significantly declined and treatment-related mortality is minimized. Recent phase-II trials have shown excellent results in efficacy and safety of AHSCT; however, challenges exist which require ongoing study. The future challenges include comparing the variety of AHSCT conditioning regimens with each other as well as with existing highly effective DMT; identifying patients with an aggressive disease course through novel biomarkers who may benefit the most from AHSCT; and surveillance of long-term outcomes of different treatment protocols. In select patients, replacing the immune system with AHSCT holds promise of fundamentally altering the trajectory of their aggressive disease course.
Recent work suggests that not all aspects of learning benefit from an iconicity advantage (Ortega, 2017). We present the results of an artificial sign language learning experiment testing the hypothesis that iconicity may help learners to learn mappings between forms and meanings, whilst having a negative impact on learning specific features of the form. We used a 3D camera (Microsoft Kinect) to capture participants’ gestures and quantify the accuracy with which they reproduce the target gestures in two conditions. In the iconic condition, participants were shown an artificial sign language consisting of congruent gesture–meaning pairs. In the arbitrary condition, the language consisted of non-congruent gesture–meaning pairs. We quantified the accuracy of participants’ gestures using dynamic time warping (Celebi et. al., 2013). Our results show that participants in the iconic condition learn mappings more successfully than participants in the arbitrary condition, but there is no difference in the accuracy with which participants reproduce the forms. While our work confirms that iconicity helps to establish form–meaning mappings, our study did not give conclusive evidence about the effect of iconicity on production; we suggest that iconicity may only have an impact on learning forms when these are complex.
Substantial clinical heterogeneity of major depressive disorder (MDD) suggests it may group together individuals with diverse aetiologies. Identifying distinct subtypes should lead to more effective diagnosis and treatment, while providing more useful targets for further research. Genetic and clinical overlap between MDD and schizophrenia (SCZ) suggests an MDD subtype may share underlying mechanisms with SCZ.
The present study investigated whether a neurobiologically distinct subtype of MDD could be identified by SCZ polygenic risk score (PRS). We explored interactive effects between SCZ PRS and MDD case/control status on a range of cortical, subcortical and white matter metrics among 2370 male and 2574 female UK Biobank participants.
There was a significant SCZ PRS by MDD interaction for rostral anterior cingulate cortex (RACC) thickness (β = 0.191, q = 0.043). This was driven by a positive association between SCZ PRS and RACC thickness among MDD cases (β = 0.098, p = 0.026), compared to a negative association among controls (β = −0.087, p = 0.002). MDD cases with low SCZ PRS showed thinner RACC, although the opposite difference for high-SCZ-PRS cases was not significant. There were nominal interactions for other brain metrics, but none remained significant after correcting for multiple comparisons.
Our significant results indicate that MDD case-control differences in RACC thickness vary as a function of SCZ PRS. Although this was not the case for most other brain measures assessed, our specific findings still provide some further evidence that MDD in the presence of high genetic risk for SCZ is subtly neurobiologically distinct from MDD in general.
Household surveys are one of the most commonly used tools for generating insight into rural communities. Despite their prevalence, few studies comprehensively evaluate the quality of data derived from farm household surveys. We critically evaluated a series of standard reported values and indicators that are captured in multiple farm household surveys, and then quantified their credibility, consistency and, thus, their reliability. Surprisingly, even variables which might be considered ‘easy to estimate’ had instances of non-credible observations. In addition, measurements of maize yields and land owned were found to be less reliable than other stationary variables. This lack of reliability has implications for monitoring food security status, poverty status and the land productivity of households. Despite this rather bleak picture, our analysis also shows that if the same farm households are followed over time, the sample sizes needed to detect substantial changes are in the order of hundreds of surveys, and not in the thousands. Our research highlights the value of targeted and systematised household surveys and the importance of ongoing efforts to improve data quality. Improvements must be based on the foundations of robust survey design, transparency of experimental design and effective training. The quality and usability of such data can be further enhanced by improving coordination between agencies, incorporating mixed modes of data collection and continuing systematic validation programmes.
We present Phantom, a fast, parallel, modular, and low-memory smoothed particle hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code developed over the last decade for astrophysical applications in three dimensions. The code has been developed with a focus on stellar, galactic, planetary, and high energy astrophysics, and has already been used widely for studies of accretion discs and turbulence, from the birth of planets to how black holes accrete. Here we describe and test the core algorithms as well as modules for magnetohydrodynamics, self-gravity, sink particles, dust–gas mixtures, H2 chemistry, physical viscosity, external forces including numerous galactic potentials, Lense–Thirring precession, Poynting–Robertson drag, and stochastic turbulent driving. Phantom is hereby made publicly available.
Ice rheology governs how glaciers flow and respond to environmental change. The rheology of glacier ice evolves in response to a variety of mechanisms, including damage, heating, melting and the development of crystalline fabric. The relative contributions of these rheological mechanisms are not well understood. Using remotely sensed data and physical models, we decouple the influence of each of the aforementioned mechanisms along the margins of Rutford Ice Stream, a laterally confined outlet glacier in West Antarctica. We show that fabric is an important control on ice rheology in the shear margins, with an inferred softening effect consistent with a single-maximum fabric. Fabric evolves to steady state near the onset of streaming flow, and ice progressively softens downstream almost exclusively due to shear heating. The rate of heating is sensitive to local shear strain rates, which respond to local changes in bed topography as ice is squeezed through the basal trough. The impact of shear heating on the downstream evolution of ice rheology in a laterally confined glacier suggests that the thermoviscous feedback – wherein faster ice flow leads to higher rates of shear heating, further softening the ice – is a fundamental control on glacier dynamics.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a broad range of unusual responses to sensory stimuli and experiences. It has been hypothesized that early differences in sensory responsiveness arise from atypical neural function and produce “cascading effects” on development across a number of domains, impacting social and communication skill, as well as broader development in children affected by ASD. A primary challenge to confirming these hypotheses is that ASD cannot be definitely diagnosed in the earliest stages of development (i.e., infancy). A potential solution is to prospectively follow infants at heightened risk for ASD based on their status as infant siblings of children who are diagnosed. We examined the developmental sequelae and possible neurophysiological substrates of three different patterns of sensory responsiveness—hyporesponsiveness (reduced or absent responding to sensory stimuli) and hyperresponsiveness (exaggerated responding to sensory stimuli), as well as sensory seeking (craving of or fascination with certain sensory experiences). Infants at high risk (HR) for ASD were compared with a control group of infants at relatively lower risk for ASD (LR; siblings of children with typical developmental histories). Objectives: Research questions included: (a) Do HR infants differ from LR infants in early sensory responsiveness?, (b) Does sensory responsiveness predict future ASD and related symptomatology? and (c) Is sensory responsiveness predicted by resting brain states? METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Methods: To answer these questions, we carried out a longitudinal correlational investigation in which 20 HR infants and 20 LR controls matched on sex and chronological age were followed over 18 months. At entry to the study, when infants were 18 months old, sensory responsiveness was measured using the Sensory Processing Assessment and the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire, and a number of putative neural signatures of early sensory differences were measured via resting state EEG. When infants were 24 and 36 months of age, ASD and related symptomatology was evaluated in a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Results: HR infants trended towards increased hyporesponsiveness and hyperresponsiveness and showed significantly elevated levels of sensory seeking relative to LR controls at 18 months of age. Both groups, furthermore, displayed a high degree of heterogeneity in sensory responsiveness. Atypical sensory responsiveness (increased hyperresponsiveness and/or hyporesponsiveness, as well as sensory seeking behavior) predicted several aspects of ASD and related symptomatology, including social, communication, and play skill, and was associated with differences in resting brain state, including metrics of oscillatory power, complexity, and connectivity, as well as hemispheric asymmetry. Moderation analyses revealed that several relations varied according to risk group, such that associations were stronger in magnitude in the HR Versus LR group. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Conclusion: Findings provide empirical support for the notion that early sensory responsiveness may produce cascading effects on development in infants at heightened risk for ASD. Differences in resting brain states may underlie atypical behavioral patterns of sensory responsiveness. From a clinical standpoint, results suggest that early sensory differences may be useful for predicting developmental trajectories, and be potentially important targets for early preventive intervention, in infants at risk for autism.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To study the role of OSA as an independent predictor of perioperative outcomes. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: For this single-institution cohort study, we included data from patients who were enrolled into 1 of 3 prospective parent studies. All participants underwent in-patient surgeries, excluding neurosurgeries, which required general anesthesia and a postoperative stay of at least 1 day. Patients included in this study were assessed daily for postoperative delirium and pain severity as part of the parent studies. In the current study, determination of delirium diagnosis was based on the 3-minute Diagnostic Confusion Assessment Method (3D-CAM), and the Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAS) was used for pain severity. Data on OSA diagnosis (determined by sleep study); OSA risk (determined by the STOP-Bang tool; snoring, tiredness, observed apnea, high blood pressure, body mass index>35 kg/m2, age>50, neck circumference, male gender); and compliance with treatment were obtained from the preoperative assessment record. Participants were grouped into 1 of 3 categories: high risk of OSA (HR-OSA; including patients with a previous positive sleep study or STOP-Bang score ≥5); intermediate risk of OSA (IR-OSA; including patients with a STOP-Bang score of 3 or 4); and low risk of OSA (LR-OSA; including patients with a previous negative sleep study or STOP-Bang score <3). Candidate risk factors for delirium and pain were also extracted from this record. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Logistic regression will be used to test whether OSA independently predicts postoperative delirium and linear regression to assess OSAs relationship to acute pain severity. We hypothesize that patients in the HR-OSA category will experience a higher incidence of postoperative delirium and greater postoperative pain severity. We also predict a step-wise increase in risk of these adverse outcomes when analyzing patients stratified by OSA risk (HR-OSA vs. IR-OSA vs. LR-OSA). For our secondary analyses, we anticipate these outcomes are modified by compliance with CPAP treatment. We believe patients with OSA who do not use prescribed CPAP will experience a higher incidence of postoperative delirium as well as increased pain severity. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: OSA is a common and frequently undiagnosed perioperative problem associated with altered pain processing and a high incidence of postoperative delirium. While likely providing stronger evidence of OSA’s reported impact on postoperative delirium and pain, our findings might also help discern points of intervention for treatment and prevention. Since OSA’s presumed impact poses challenges to clinicians and patients, prospective, randomized trials testing preventative or mitigating interventions are necessary. We hope to use these results to design such trials and clinical plans, with the goal of reducing postoperative delirium and acute postsurgical pain severity for the large number of patients at risk due to OSA.