Immunochemical techniques offer many advantages over chromatographic methods used for pesticide trace analysis of substrates such as soil, water, plants, urine, and blood. These advantages include speed of processing samples, high specificity for detecting a pesticide, reduced amount of preparation and cleanup of the sample before analysis, and a dramatic increase in the number of samples that can be analyzed. Immunoassays are based on the principle that antibodies to pesticides can be prepared, in animals, that can recognize and attach with exquisite specificity to certain chemical configurations displayed on the surface of a molecule. Small molecules such as herbicides usually are not immunogenic but can be made so by chemically bonding them to a large immunogenic protein such as bovine serum albumin before injection into an animal. Development of herbicide-specific antibodies and their use in direct and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (EIA or ELISA) as well as radioimmunoassays (RIA) are discussed. The principles behind monoclonal antibody production are outlined, and immunoassays using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies are compared. Specific reference is made to the development and use of indirect ELISA and RIA procedures for trace analysis of 2,4-D and picloram.