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Concerns exist over the long-term consequences of subclavian artery ligation in subclavian flap repair for coarctation of the aorta. We sought to analyse upper limb structural and functional performance in adults who have had surgery in childhood for coarctation of the aorta, using either subclavian flap repair or end to end aortic anastomosis.
Two-group observational design using anatomical and upper limb functional performance measures. Purposive sampling from our specialist adult congenital heart disease database of patients who received subclavian flap repair or end to end anastomosis for coarctation of the aorta as children. Upper limb measurements were completed using MRI and blood flow velocity with ultrasound imaging. Bilateral standardised upper limb functional testing of assessment of strength, dexterity and a standardised self-report of upper limb disability was completed.
Eighteen right-handed patients, 9 with subclavian repair, (38 ± 12 years, 78% males) were studied. Age at repair was 4.7 ± 5.9 years; mean time from initial repair 32 ± 9 years. The subclavian group had a larger difference between right and left when compared the end to end anastomosis group in: lower arm muscle mass (94.5 ± 42.3 mls versus 37.8 ± 94.5 mls, p = 0.008), lower arm maximal cross-sectional area, (5.9 ± 2.8 cm2 versus 2.9 ± 2.6 cm2, p = 0.038) and grip strength (14.7 ± 8.3 lbs versus 5.9 ± 5.3 lbs, p = 0.016) There were no significant functional differences between groups.
In adults with repaired coarctation of the aorta, those with subclavian flap repair had a greater right to left arm muscle mass and grip strength differential when compared to those with end to end anastomosis repair.
The high-resolution He I photoelectron spectrum of C60 in the gas phase is reported and compared with the photoelectron spectrum of C60as a thin film prepared by vapor deposition (one to three monolayers) on gold. The spectra show low valence ionization bands that are very sharp and well-separated for a molecule of this size, consistent with the highly symmetric truncated icosahedral structure and theoretical calculations. The total band widths of the valence ionizations from the thin film samples are comparable to those from the gas phase species, showing that the electronic interactions between the molecules and with the surface do not significantly influence these measurements of the molecular electronic structure. The gas phase photoelectron spectra also show vibrational fine structure in the first and second ionization bands with spacings that are consistent with the two totally symmetric vibrational modes of C60. The first vertical ionization energy relative to the vacuum level is determined to be 7.61 ± 0.02 eV from these gas phase measurements.
The modeling of field distributions by Gaussian random wavefields is reviewed. Basic properties of Gaussian random functions are discussed and applied to the specific examples of randomly scattered fields (speckle patterns) and random eigenfunctions in chaotic enclosures, according to Berry's ergodic mode hypothesis. Sabine's law for reverberation time is derived for an ergodic random mode.
The fact that deterministic wavefields in complex geometries can be represented and analyzed by statistical methods is an important assumption in many physical systems. In acoustics, such random-seeming deterministic fields can arise in scattering from a rough surface or in the spatial structure of the eigenfunctions of a perfectly resonant ergodic cavity. The random fields in the former case originate from approximating the surface roughness with randomly placed secondary sources, whose superposition gives rise to a random “speckle pattern,” typical for a wide range of wave scattering systems, especially laser light (Goodman 1985, 2007), and long studied in acoustics (Morse & Bolt 1944, Ebeling 1984). More surprising is Berry's hypothesis (Berry 1977), originally proposed in the context of quantum chaos, that a typical mode of an irregular cavity itself strongly resembles a typical Gaussian random function for high frequencies (i.e., in the semiclassical limit); again, this notion has existed in some sense for a long time in acoustics (Morse & Bolt 1944).
Morphological abnormalities of the superior temporal gyrus have been
consistently reported in schizophrenia, but the timing of their
occurrence remains unclear.
To determine whether individuals exhibit superior temporal gyral changes
before the onset of psychosis.
We used magnetic resonance imaging to examine grey matter volumes of the
superior temporal gyrus and its subregions (planum polare, Heschl's
gyrus, planum temporale, and rostral and caudal regions) in 97
antipsychotic-naive individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis, of whom
31 subsequently developed psychosis and 66 did not, and 42 controls.
Those at risk of psychosis had significantly smaller superior temporal
gyri at baseline compared with controls bilaterally, without any
prominent subregional effect; however, there was no difference between
those who did and did not subsequently develop psychosis.
Our findings indicate that grey matter reductions of the superior
temporal gyrus are present before psychosis onset, and are not due to
medication, but these baseline changes are not predictive of transition