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Poor diets, including excess added sugar consumption, contribute to the global burden of disease. Subsequently, many nutrition policies have been implemented to reduce added sugar intake and improve population health, including taxes, education, labelling and environmental interventions. A potential consequence of these policy actions is the substitution of added sugars with non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) in a variety of foods and beverages. NNS are used to reduce the energy and sugar content of foods and beverages while maintaining their palatability. Evidence of the toxicological risks of NNS is inconsistent, though concerns have been raised over the potential substitution effects of ultra-processed foods containing NNS for whole foods. This review aimed to provide an overview of current NNS food supply and consumption patterns, assess added sugar-reduction policies and their impact on NNS, and determine the impact of NNS on food choice, energy intake and diet quality. NNS are widely available in a variety of products, though most commonly in carbonated beverages, dairy products, confectionery, table-top sweeteners and fruit drinks. However, the longitudinal trends of different product categories, and differences between geographies and economy-income levels, require further study. Few studies have examined NNS consumption trends globally, though an increase in NNS consumption in beverages has been observed in some regions. Research examining how the increased availability of low-sugar, NNS-containing products affects global dietary patterns is limited, particularly in terms of their potential substitution effects.
A comprehensive nutrition policy containing a broad package of cross-sector and synergistic policy actions is required to attenuate the systemic drivers of poor nutrition. The current study aims to critically analyse trends in the scope of federal nutrition policy actions in Australia between 2007 and 2018 by: (1) describing the changes in nutrition policy actions, benchmarked against an international best-practice policy framework and (2) investigating how and why the scope of these policy actions have changed over time by examining the decision-making processes that led to the establishment of Australia’s Healthy Food Partnership (the Partnership).
Qualitative case study involving documentary analysis and key-informant interviews. Australian federal government documents (n 10) were analysed against the NOURISHING framework. Key informants (n 6) were interviewed and asked about the Partnership’s decision-making and establishment processes.
Executive Committee (the Partnership’s governing body) and working group members.
From 2007 to 2018, the scope of Australian national nutrition policy has fluctuated from evidence-informed recommendations for a comprehensive policy to the mostly discrete policy actions of the Partnership. Themes of ‘pragmatism and compromise’, ‘actor relationships and lobbying’ and ‘political context’ were critical drivers for establishing the Partnership.
The narrowing of Australian nutrition policy reflects a response to political expediency and compromise. This political dynamic highlights a dilemma facing nutrition policy advocates: should (and if so, how) a balance be sought between the aspirational but possibly unrealistic goals, and the limited but likely deliverable outcomes during policy-making processes? These findings have relevance for developing a future comprehensive national nutrition policy.
This article captures the webinar narrative on March 31, 2020 of four expert panelists addressing three questions on the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Each panelist was selected for their unique personal expertise, ranging from front-line emergency physicians from multiple countries, an international media personality, former director of the US Strategic National Stockpile, and one of the foremost international experts in disaster medicine and public policy. The forum was moderated by one of the most widely recognized disaster medical experts in the world. The four panelists were asked three questions regarding the current pandemic as follows:
1. What do you see as a particular issue of concern during the current pandemic?
2. What do you see as a particular strength during the current pandemic?
3. If you could change one thing about the way that the pandemic response is occurring, what would you change?
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
Junk-food marketing contributes significantly to childhood obesity, which in turn imposes major health and economic burdens. Despite this, political priority for addressing junk-food marketing has been weak in many countries. Competing interests, worldviews and beliefs of stakeholders involved with the issue contribute to this political inertia. An integral group of actors for driving policy change are parliamentarians, who champion policy and enact legislation. However, how parliamentarians interpret and portray (i.e. frame) the causes and solutions of public health nutrition problems is poorly understood. The present study aimed to understand how Australian parliamentarians from different political parties frame the problem of junk-food marketing.
Framing analysis of transcripts from the Australian Government’s Parliamentary Hansard, involving development of a theoretical framework, data collection, coding transcripts and thematic synthesis of results.
Parliamentarian framing generally reflected political party ideology. Liberal parliamentarians called for minimal government regulation and greater personal responsibility, reflecting the party’s core values of liberalism and neoliberalism. Greens parliamentarians framed the issue as systemic, highlighting the need for government intervention and reflecting the core party value of social justice. Labor parliamentarians used both frames at varying times.
Parliamentarians’ framing was generally consistent with their party ideology, though subject to changes over time. This project provides insights into the role of framing and ideology in shaping public health policy responses and may inform communication strategies for nutrition advocates. Advocates might consider using frames that resonate with the ideologies of different political parties and adapting these over time.
Global Cumulative Treatment Analysis (GCTA) is a novel clinical research model combining expert knowledge, and treatment coordination based upon global information-gain, to treat every patient optimally while efficiently searching the vast space that is the realm of cancer research.
Carbonate glasses can be formed routinely in the system K2CO3–MgCO3. The enthalpy of formation for one such 0.55K2CO3–0.45MgCO3 glass was determined at 298 K to be 115.00 ± 1.21 kJ/mol by drop solution calorimetry in molten sodium molybdate (3Na2O·MoO3) at 975 K. The corresponding heat of formation from oxides at 298 K was −261.12 ± 3.02 kJ/mol. This ternary glass is shown to be slightly metastable with respect to binary crystalline components (K2CO3 and MgCO3) and may be further stabilized by entropy terms arising from cation disorder and carbonate group distortions. This high degree of disorder is confirmed by 13C MAS NMR measurement of the average chemical shift tensor values, which show asymmetry of the carbonate anion to be significantly larger than previously reported values. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the structure of this carbonate glass reflects the strong interaction between the oxygen atoms in distorted carbonate anions and potassium cations.
Background: Migraine is a common disorder most typically presenting as headache and often associated with vertigo and motion sickness. It is a genetically complex condition with multiple genes ultimately contributing to the predisposition and development of this episodic neurological disorder. We identified a large American family of 29 individuals of which 17 members suffered from at least one of these disorders, migraine, vertigo, or motion sickness. Many of these individuals suffered from several simultaneously. We hypothesized that vertigo and motion sickness may involve genes that are independent to those directly contributing to migraine susceptibility. Methods: Genome-wide linkage analysis performed using 400 microsatellite repeat markers spaced at 10 cM throughout the genome. The members of this family were phenotyped for each condition, migraine, vertigo, and motion sickness and analyzed separately. Statistical analysis was performed using two-point and multipoint linkage analysis employing a number of models including autosomal recessive or dominant patterns of inheritance with high and low genetic penetrance. Results: We identified a novel locus for migraine, 9q13-q22 (maximum two-point logarithm of odds [LOD] score-2.51). In addition, there are suggestive LOD scores that localize to different chromosomes for each phenotype; vertigo (chromosome 18, LOD score of 1.82) and motion sickness (chromosome 4, LOD score of 2.09). Conclusions: Our analysis supports our hypothesis that the migraine-associated vertigo and motion sickness may involve distinct susceptibility genes.
Open science has recently gained traction as establishment institutions have come on-side and thrown their weight behind the movement and initiatives aimed at creation of information commons. At the same time, the movement's traditional insistence on unrestricted dissemination and reuse of all information of scientific value has been challenged by the movement to strengthen protection of personal data. This article assesses tensions between open science and data protection, with a focus on the GDPR.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.
Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.
The relationship between depression and sexual behaviour among men who have sex with men (MSM) is poorly understood.
To investigate prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥10) and the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual behaviour among MSM reporting recent sex.
The Attitudes to and Understanding of Risk of Acquisition of HIV (AURAH) is a cross-sectional study of UK genitourinary medicine clinic attendees without diagnosed HIV (2013–2014).
Among 1340 MSM, depressive symptoms (12.4%) were strongly associated with socioeconomic disadvantage and lower supportive network. Adjusted for key sociodemographic factors, depressive symptoms were associated with measures of condomless sex partners in the past 3 months (≥2 (prevalence ratio (PR) 1.42, 95% CI 1.17–1.74; P=0.001), unknown or HIV-positive status (PR 1.43, 95% CI 1.20–1.71; P<0.001)), sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis (PR 1.46, 95% CI 1.19–1.79; P<0.001) and post-exposure prophylaxis use in the past year (PR 1.83, 95% CI 1.33–2.50; P<0.001).
Management of mental health may play a role in HIV and STI prevention.
The natural environment underpins human well-being in diverse and complex ways, providing both material and non-material benefits. Effective conservation requires context-specific understandings of human interactions with, and conceptions of, nature. A focus on how cultural values and norms frame relationships with the natural world can enhance conservation efforts, and can prevent conservation actions undermining local culture and values, providing opportunities to reinforce them instead. Conservation, including the conceptualization and management of protected areas, has the potential to support or undermine these culture–nature relationships. A cultural values approach seeks to identify, understand and integrate considerations of cultural values into the design and implementation of conservation initiatives. Such approaches can realize diverse benefits, including maintaining and enhancing local culture (as a contribution to human well-being), deepening links between communities and conservation activities; facilitating parallel conservation of nature and culture; promoting non-material as well as material natural values; and allowing specific cultural values to inform and drive conservation efforts. Cultural values approaches thus help to enhance the equity, efficacy and acceptability of conservation practice. Fauna & Flora International has implicitly and explicitly acknowledged cultural values within project design and delivery for over 20 years. In 2011 a Cultural Values Programme was established to enhance the role of cultural values of species, places and practices, and of individual and group identities, within conservation. Here we describe our evolving approach to integrating cultural values into conservation practice, provide key lessons learnt, based on specific case studies, and relate these to wider conservation policy and practice.
Water samples taken from extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) devices used at University Hospitals Birmingham yielded high total viable counts (TVCs) containing a variety of microorganisms, including M. chimaera. Disinfection resulted in the reduction of TVCs and eradication of Mycobacterium chimaera. Weekly disinfection and water sampling are required to manage the water quality in these devices.
The electrical characteristics of Au/Ni/Ti/ n-SiC contacts have been examined as a function of implant dose (1013-1014 ions/cm2) at 5 KeV and temperature of annealing (750-1000 °C). Measurements of specific contact resistance, ρc, were approximately constant at lower implant doses until increasing at 1 x 1015 ions/cm2 for both C and P ions. Annealing at a temperature of 1000 °C has reduced the value of ρc by an order of magnitude to ∼1 x 10-6 Ω.cm2 at implant doses of 1013-1014 ions/cm2. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) has shown that annealing at 1000 °C resulted in a strong indiffusion of the metallization layers at the interface.
Since its discovery and initial commercialization in the 1940s, 2,4-D has been an important tool for weed control in a wide variety of crop and noncrop uses. Work studying its chemistry, physiology, mode of action, toxicology, environmental behavior, and efficacy has not only helped elucidate the characteristics of 2,4-D but also provided basic methods that have been used to investigate the properties of hundreds of herbicides that followed it. Much of the information published by researchers over 60 yr ago is still pertinent to understanding the performance of 2,4-D today. Further, new studies continue to be published, especially regarding the mechanisms of 2,4-D action at the molecular level. New uses for 2,4-D, sometimes enabled by biotechnology, continue to be developed. This review strives to provide an overall understanding of 2,4-D activity in plants, plant sensitivity to 2,4-D, toxicological impacts, and current and future uses.
Historically, libraries have focused not only on building collections, but on creating a means of describing these resources to make them discoverable and useful. Over time, cataloguing – or, more broadly, metadata creation – has been standardized in various structured ways to ensure consistency at a local level and the ability to easily share resource descriptions among institutions. Within these structures, authority control functions as a key component for usability by enabling optimal search and retrieval of relevant resources by users. Simply defined, authority control is the process of identifying a single preferred or ‘authorized’ format of a value that should be used in place of alternative spellings or synonyms to create consistent entries. There are a number of areas in which authority control is important for libraries, including subjects, locations and names of organizations, events and persons.
Name authority tends to pose a particular problem, because a metadata creator may need additional information associated with an authority heading to determine whether a name applies (particularly in the case of multiple persons with similar names). This may require a separate database of authority entries with contextual information, rather than a list of authorized terms or thesaurus, which are sufficient for some forms of authority control. Tillett (1989) notes that authority work generally involves research of names as well as documenting information in a name authority file such as ‘the authority data of preferred form, variants, history, scope, and links to other authority records.’ A number of initiatives in the library environment, both historically and in the present, have attempted to generate and share name authority records, and to address the challenge of keeping these systems up to date and relevant. Typically national libraries throughout the world take responsibility for names that are important to their national domain, including authors and organizations from their country that create resources of interest to their users. In the USA, this work has been carried out for decades by the Library of Congress (LOC) with their Name Authority File (LCNAF). Containing over eight million records, this dataset comprises names of people and organizations that appear in the LOC catalogue. In the past decade there has been an asserted effort to move