Field studies at six locations over 3 yr in Kansas compared pyroxsulam at two application timings to competitive standards for winter annual weed control in winter wheat. Pyroxsulam applied fall-POST (FP) controlled downy brome 84 to 99% and was similar to or greater than sulfosulfuron, propoxycarbazone, or propoxycarbazone plus mesosulfuron. Downy brome control was lower when application timing was delayed until spring (SP), such that no herbicide provided more than 90% downy brome control. Cheat control was 97% or more with almost all herbicides applied FP, and greater than 90% in most locations when herbicides were applied SP. Sulfosulfuron was the exception with only 30 to 81% cheat control. All FP-applied herbicides, except sulfosulfuron at Manhattan, KS, controlled blue mustard 95% or more. Pyroxsulam and propoxycarbazone plus mesosulfuron FP completely controlled henbit at Hesston, KS, in 2009, but no herbicide treatment provided more than 60% control when applied SP. Averaged over application timings, pyroxsulam provided the greatest henbit control (76 and 78%) at Manhattan and Hays, respectively, in 2009, and FP treatments were 33 and 28 percentage points more effective than SP treatments at those locations. Averaged over application timing, wheat yields did not differ between herbicide treatments in five of six locations. Averaged over herbicide treatment, FP-treated wheat yielded more grain than SP-treated wheat at three of the six locations.