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The evidence of funerary archaeology, historical sources and poetry has been used to define a ‘heroic warrior ethos’ across Northern Europe during the first millennium AD. In northern Britain, burials of later prehistoric to early medieval date are limited, as are historical and literary sources. There is, however, a rich sculptural corpus, to which a newly discovered monolith with an image of a warrior can now be added. Comparative analysis reveals a materialisation of a martial ideology on carved stone monuments, probably associated with elite cemeteries, highlighting a regional expression of the warrior ethos in late Roman and post-Roman Europe.
To describe the characteristics of people in Central and Eastern Sydney (CES), NSW, who had a General Practice Management Plan (GPMP) and claimed for at least one private allied health service item; and to examine if allied health service use results in less hospitalisations over a five-year period.
The number of people living with chronic health conditions is increasing in Australia. The Chronic Disease Management programme was introduced to the Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) to provide a more structured approach to managing patients with chronic conditions and complex care needs. The programme supports general practitioners claiming up to one GPMP and one Team Care Arrangement every year, and the patient additionally claiming for up to five private allied health services visits.
A prospective longitudinal study was conducted. The sample consisted of 5771 participants in CES who had a GPMP within a two-year health service utilisation baseline period (2007–2009). The analysis used the 45 and Up Study questionnaire data linked to the MBS, hospitalisation, death and emergency department data for the period 2006–2014.
Of the eligible participants, 43% (2460) had at least one allied health service item claim in the subsequent 12 months. Allied health services were reported as physiotherapy, podiatry and other allied health services. The highest rates of allied health service use were among participants aged 85 years and over (49%). After controlling for confounding factors, a significant difference was found between having claimed for five or more physiotherapy services and emergency admissions (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.72–0.95) and potentially preventable hospitalisations (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.64–0.96) in the subsequent five years. Use of allied health service items was well targeted towards those with chronic and complex care needs, and use of physiotherapy services was associated with less avoidable hospitalisations.
Connecticut’s Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth were among the most important participants in the War for Independence, the Constitutional Convention, and the First Federal Congress. As well, both served on their state’s Superior Court, and Ellsworth was chief drafter of the Judiciary Act of 1789 and Chief Justice of the United States from 1796–1800. Their religious convictions, informed by Reformed theology, influenced their contributions to the creation of America’s constitutional order, and they represent well the 50–75% of Americans in this era who Calvinists.
From the early days of European settlement in North America, Christianity has had a profound impact on American law and culture. This volume profiles nineteen of America's most influential Christian jurists from the early colonial era to the present day. Anyone interested in American legal history and jurisprudence, the role Christianity has played throughout the nation's history, and the relationship between faith and law will enjoy this worthy and unique study. The jurists covered in this collection were pious men and women, but that does not mean they agreed on how faith should inform law. From Roger Williams and John Cotton to Antonin Scalia and Mary Ann Glendon, America's great Christian jurists have brought their faith to bear on the practice of law in different ways and to different effects.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this study is to use machine Learning techniques to generate maps of epithelium and lumen density in MRI space. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Methods: We prospectively recruited 39 patients undergoing prostatectomy for this institutional review board (IRB) approved study. Patients underwent MP-MRI before prostatectomy on a 3T field strength MRI scanner (General Electric, Waukesha, WI, USA) using an endorectal coil. MP-MRI included field-of-view optimized and constrained undistorted single shot (FOCUS) diffusion weighted imaging with 10 b-values (b=0, 10, 25, 50, 80, 100, 200, 500, 1000, and 2000), dynamic contrast enhanced imaging, and T2-weighted imaging. T2 weighted images were intensity normalized and apparent diffusion coefficient maps were calculated. The dynamic contrast enhanced data was used to calculate the percent change in signal intensity before and after contrast injection. All images were aligned to the T2 weighted image. Robotic prostatectomy was performed 2 weeks after image acquisition. Prostate samples were sliced using a 3D printed slicing jig matching the slice profile of the T2 weighted image. Whole mount samples at 10 μm thickness were taken, hematoxylin and eosin stained, digitized, and annotated by a board certified pathologist. A total of 210 slides were included in this study. Lumen and epithelium were automatically segmented using a custom algorithm written in MATLAB. The algorithm was validated by comparing manual to automatic segmentation on 18 samples. Slides were aligned with the T2 weighted image using a nonlinear control point warping technique. Lumen and epithelium density and the expert annotation were subsequently transformed into MRI space. Co-registration was validated by applying a known warp to tumor masks noted by the pathologist and control point warping the whole mount slide to match the transform. Overlap was measured using a DICE coefficient. A learning curve was generated to determine the optimal number of patients to train the algorithm on. A PLS algorithm was trained on 150 random permutations of patients incrementing from 1 to 29 patients. Slides were stratified such that all slides from a single patient were in the same cohort. Three cohorts were generated, with tumor burden balanced across all cohort. A PLS algorithm was trained on 2 independent training sets (cohorts 1 and 2) and applied to cohort 3. The input vector consisted of MRI values and the target variable was lumen and epithelium density. The algorithm was trained lesion-wise. Trained PiCT models were applied to the test cohort voxel-wise to generate 2 new image contrasts. Mean lesion values were compared between high grade, low grade, and healthy tissue using an ANOVA. An ROC analysis was performed lesion-wise on the test set. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Results: The segmentation accuracy validation revealed R=0.99 and R=0.72 (p<0.001) for lumen and epithelium, respectively. The co-registration accuracy revealed a 94.5% overlap. The learning curve stabilized at 10 patients with a root mean square error of 0.14, thus the size of the 2 independent training cohorts was set to 10, leaving 19 for the test cohort. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We present a technique for combining radiology and pathology with machine learning for generating predictive cytological topography (PiCT) maps of cellularity and lumen density prostate. The voxel-wise approach to mapping cellular features generates 2 new interpretable image contrasts, which can potentially increase confidence in diagnosis or guide biopsy and radiation treatment.
Despite improvements in the medical and surgical management of infants with CHD, growth failure before surgery in many infants continues to be a significant concern. A nutritional pathway was developed, the aim of which was to provide a structured approach to nutritional care for infants with CHD awaiting surgery.
Materials and methods
The modified Delphi process was development of a nutritional pathway; initial stakeholder meeting to finalise draft guidelines and develop questions; round 1 anonymous online survey; round 2 online survey; regional cardiac conference and pathway revision; and final expert meeting and pathway finalisation.
Paediatric Dietitians from all 11 of the paediatric cardiology surgical centres in the United Kingdom contributed to the guideline development. In all, 33% of participants had 9 or more years of experience working with infants with CHD. By the end of rounds 1 and 2, 76 and 96% of participants, respectively, were in agreement with the statements. Three statements where consensus was not achieved by the end of round 2 were discussed and agreed at the final expert group meeting.
Nutrition guidelines were developed for infants with CHD awaiting surgery, using a modified Delphi process, incorporating the best available evidence and expert opinion with regard to nutritional support in this group.
Background: Few studies have tracked stroke survivors through transitions across the health system and identified the most common trajectories and quality of care received. The objectives of our study were to examine the trajectories that incident stroke patients experience and to quantify the extent to which their care adhered to the best practices for stroke care. Methods: A population-based cohort of first-ever stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients from the 2012/13 Ontario Stroke Audit was linked to administrative databases using an encrypted health card number to identify dominant trajectories (N=12,362). All trajectories began in the emergency department (ED) and were defined by the transitions that followed immediately after the ED. Quality indicators were calculated to quantify best practice adherence within trajectories. Results: Six trajectories of stroke care were identified with significant variability in patient characteristics and quality of care received. Almost two-thirds (64.5%) required hospital admission. Trajectories that only involved the ED had the lowest rates of brain and carotid artery imaging (91.5 and 44.2%, respectively). Less than 20% of patients in trajectories involving hospital admissions received care on a stroke unit. The trajectory involving inpatient rehabilitation received suboptimal secondary prevention measures. Conclusions: There are six main trajectories stroke patients follow, and adherence to best practices varies by trajectory. Trajectories resulting in patients being transitioned to home care following ED management only are least likely and those including inpatient rehabilitation are most likely to receive stroke best practices. Increased time in facility-based care results in greater access to best practices. Stroke patients receiving only ED care require closer follow-up by stroke specialists.
This article analyzes the effectiveness of an international, interdisciplinary simulation of an ongoing trade negotiation. It thoroughly describes the simulation, provides links to background information for public use, and offers suggestions on ways to further strengthen the learning outcomes achieved.
This contribution explores an aspect of boat burials in the second half of the first millennium AD across Northern Europe, specifically boat burials that included equipment for board games (surviving variously as boards and playing pieces, playing pieces only, or dice and playing pieces). Entangled aspects of identity, gender, cosmogony, performance, and commemoration are considered within a framework of cultural citation and connection between death and play. The crux of this article's citational thrust is the notion of quoting life in the rituals surrounding death. This was done both in the service of the deceased and in the service of those wanting to remember the deceased, the argument distills around the biographical trajectories or the different social and individual uses to which people put ostensibly simple things such as gaming pieces.