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The Avebury henge is one of the famous megalithic monuments of the European Neolithic, yet much remains unknown about the detail and chronology of its construction. Here, the results of a new geophysical survey and re-examination of earlier excavation records illuminate the earliest beginnings of the monument. The authors suggest that Avebury's Southern Inner Circle was constructed to memorialise and monumentalise the site of a much earlier ‘foundational’ house. The significance here resides in the way that traces of habitation may take on special social and historical value, leading to their marking and commemoration through major acts of monument building.
Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) are sites identified as being globally important for the conservation of bird populations on the basis of an internationally agreed set of criteria. We present the first review of the development and spread of the IBA concept since it was launched by BirdLife International (then ICBP) in 1979 and examine some of the characteristics of the resulting inventory. Over 13,000 global and regional IBAs have so far been identified and documented in terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems in almost all of the world’s countries and territories, making this the largest global network of sites of significance for biodiversity. IBAs have been identified using standardised, data-driven criteria that have been developed and applied at global and regional levels. These criteria capture multiple dimensions of a site’s significance for avian biodiversity and relate to populations of globally threatened species (68.6% of the 10,746 IBAs that meet global criteria), restricted-range species (25.4%), biome-restricted species (27.5%) and congregatory species (50.3%); many global IBAs (52.7%) trigger two or more of these criteria. IBAs range in size from < 1 km2 to over 300,000 km2 and have an approximately log-normal size distribution (median = 125.0 km2, mean = 1,202.6 km2). They cover approximately 6.7% of the terrestrial, 1.6% of the marine and 3.1% of the total surface area of the Earth. The launch in 2016 of the KBA Global Standard, which aims to identify, document and conserve sites that contribute to the global persistence of wider biodiversity, and whose criteria for site identification build on those developed for IBAs, is a logical evolution of the IBA concept. The role of IBAs in conservation planning, policy and practice is reviewed elsewhere. Future technical priorities for the IBA initiative include completion of the global inventory, particularly in the marine environment, keeping the dataset up to date, and improving the systematic monitoring of these sites.
Many countries face the challenge of an aging population. Development of suitable technologies to support frail elderly living in care homes, sheltered housing or at home remains a concern. Technology evaluation in real-life conditions is often lacking, and randomized controlled trials of ‘pre-designed’ technologies are expensive and fail to deliver. A novel alternative would be ‘living labs’-real-life test and experimentation environments where users and producers co-create innovations and large-scale data can be collected.
The goal of the living labs and Data Driven Research and Innovation (DDRI) Programme is to use data driven analytics and insights to support technology development for independent living, healthy aging and more cost-effective care. This involves a cluster of long-term residential care facilities providing 24/7 living lab settings, linked to an embedded innovation hub. DDRI also encompasses private vehicles (e.g. sensors in cars) to enable elderly to drive safely for longer. Collaborations have been established with Universities in England, Scotland and Ireland and with international industry partners.
Several projects are underway: (i) develop machine learning algorithm from non-intrusive sensor data to build a well-being representation for individual residents/citizens; (ii) evaluate innovative interventions for good sleep environment and nutritional support; and (iii) establish ethics framework to ensure that needs of residents, families and staff are embedded in design, communication, and evaluation of future DDRI projects. In addition, fifteen interdisciplinary doctoral fellowships are in place, six universities are working closely with individual living lab settings, and an innovation hub has been established in one care home for horizon-scanning and strategic technology selection and implementation.
Over the next five years, a national network of 20 residential living labs with over 1,500 participants will be established. Generation of new user-led technologies, blueprints for capture of individual data at significant scale, and ethical and organizational guidelines will be developed. Intelligent mobility via data capture/feedback in vehicles will be established.
Although crop diversity has been identified as essential to enhance global food security and adapt to climate change, high loss of genetic resources is occurring due to agricultural industrialization and market requirements. Value chain development is an emerging market strategy that seeks to simultaneously achieve agrobiodiversity conservation and economic goals, though little empirical evidence exists regarding the extent to which value chains encourage biodiversity maintenance. This study considers the conservation of native potatoes among households in the highlands of Peru where value chain development is being pursued to create market niches for certain native potato varieties. Utilizing a mixed-methods case study approach, the findings of this study indicate that the conservers of native varieties are the households with more endowed resource bases as well as those that sell native varieties in value chains. However, the findings suggest that value chains themselves likely have only a marginal effect on conservation. Native potato conservation and potato production for value chains exist as two separate livelihood activities, and households with more resources are best positioned to engage in both. While value chains allow households to capitalize on the economic value of certain native varieties, the production of other native varieties allows households to fulfill cultural values. Based on these findings, this study concludes that value chain opportunities for native varieties should continue to be identified but they alone are not an adequate strategy to conserve agrobiodiversity. Therefore, in addition to value chain development, a full suite of conservation schemes should be implemented simultaneously.
This paper focuses upon the web of practices and transformations bound up in the extraction and movement of megaliths during the Neolithic of southern Britain. The focus is on the Avebury landscape of Wiltshire, where over 700 individual megaliths were employed in the construction of ceremonial and funerary monuments. Locally sourced, little consideration has been given to the process of acquisition and movement of sarsen stones that make up key monuments such as the Avebury henge and its avenues, attention instead focusing on the middle-distance transportation of sarsen out of this region to Stonehenge. Though stone movements were local, we argue they were far from lacking in significance, as indicated by the subsequent monumentalization of at least two locations from which they were likely acquired. We argue that since such stones embodied place(s), their removal, movement and resetting represented a remarkably dynamic and potentially disruptive reconfiguration of the world as it was known. Megaliths were never inert or stable matter, and we need to embrace this in our interpretative accounts if we are to understand the very different types of monument that emerged in prehistory as a result.
Family carers of people with dementia frequently report acting abusively toward them and carer psychological morbidity predicts this. We investigated whether START (STrAtegies for RelaTives), a psychological intervention which reduces depression and anxiety in family carers also reduces abusive behavior in carers of people living in their own homes. We also explored the longitudinal course of carer abusive behavior over two year.
We included self-identified family carers who gave support at least weekly to people with dementia referred in the previous year to three UK mental health services and a neurological dementia service. We randomly assigned these carers to START, an eight-session, manual-based coping intervention, or treatment as usual (TAU). Carer abusive behavior (Modified Conflict Tactic Scale (MCTS) score ≥2 representing significant abuse) was assessed at baseline, 4, 8, 12, and 24 months.
We recruited 260 carers, 173 to START and 87 to TAU. There was no evidence that abusive behavior levels differed between randomization groups or changed over time. A quarter of carers still reported significant abuse after two years, but those not acting abusively at baseline did not become abusive.
There was no evidence that START, which reduced carer anxiety and depression, reduced carer abusive behavior. For ethical reasons, we frequently intervened to manage concerning abuse reported in both groups, which may have disguised an intervention effect. Future dementia research should include elder abuse as an outcome, and consider carefully how to manage detected abuse.
As a result of the exclusive use of extremely small megaliths (miniliths), the prehistoric stone settings of Exmoor, south-west England, challenge current approaches to the interpretation of monumental stone architecture during the later Neolithic and Early Bronze Age. Whilst the broader context of the practice of erecting tiny upright stones (a seemingly diverse and widespread phenomenon) and the reasons why this diminutive architecture has tended to escape sustained critical comment have been explored (smaller stone elements being relegated to a generalised background or subsidiary role such as ‘packing’), attempts to explain the settings have been remarkably few. Drawing upon the results of ten years of piecemeal fieldwork on the moor the present paper seeks to rectify this, arguing that far from being generalised ritual structures or metaphorical expressions of hunting groups, the tiny stones were, instead, an integral part of a dynamic human–animal landscape of movement and pause.
The effect of low energy implantation of P or C ions in 3C-SiC on the properties of Ti/Ni/Au contacts has been examined for doses in the range 1013-1015 ions/cm2. Measurements of specific contact resistance, ρc, were performed using the two-contact circular test structure. The magnitude of ρc for the Ti/Ni/Au contacts on unimplanted SiC was 1.29 x 10−6 Ω.cm2. The value of ρc increased significantly at an implant dose of 1 x 1015 ions/cm2. The dependence of ρc on ion dose has been measured using both C and P implant species.
Background: Medications are frequently prescribed for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) associated with dementia, although information on the efficacy and safety of medications for NPS specifically in long-term care (LTC) settings is limited. The objective of this study was to provide a current review of the efficacy and safety of pharmacological treatments for NPS in LTC.
Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials comparing medications with either placebo or other interventions in LTC. Study quality was described using the Cochrane collaboration risk of bias tool. The efficacy of medications was evaluated using NPS symptom rating scales. Safety was evaluated through rates of trial withdrawals, trial withdrawals due to adverse events, and mortality.
Results: A total of 29 studies met inclusion criteria. The most common medications evaluated in studies were atypical antipsychotics (N = 15), typical antipsychotics (N = 7), anticonvulsants (N = 4), and cholinesterase inhibitors (N = 3). Statistically significant improvements in NPS were noted in some studies evaluating risperidone, olanzapine, and single studies of aripiprazole, carbamazepine, estrogen, cyproterone, propranolol, and prazosin. Study quality was difficult to rate in many cases due to incomplete reporting of details. Some studies reported higher rates of trial withdrawals, adverse events, and mortality associated with medications.
Conclusions: We conclude that there is limited evidence to support the use of some atypical antipsychotics and other medications for NPS in LTC populations. However, the generally modest efficacy and risks of adverse events highlight the need for the development of safe and effective pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for this population.
Calcium phosphates form a vast family of biominerals, which have attracted much attention in fields like biology, medicine, and materials science, to name a few. Solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is one of the few techniques capable of providing information about their structure at the atomic level. Here, examples of recent advances of solid state NMR techniques are given to demonstrate their suitability to characterize in detail synthetic and biological calcium phosphates. Examples of high-resolution 31P, 1H (and 17O), solid state NMR experiments of a 17O-enriched monocalcium phosphate monohydrate-monetite mixture and of a mouse tooth are presented. In both cases, the advantage of performing fast Magic Angle Spinning NMR experiments at high magnetic fields is emphasized, notably because it allows very small volumes of sample to be analyzed.
Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is of fundamental importance in biological and chemical processes in the atmosphere–biosphere system, altering the Earth's climate balance in many ways. These include the direct and indirect emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), atmospheric Nr deposition and tropospheric ozone formation (O3), both of which alter the biospheric CO2 sink, Nr supply effects on CH4 emissions, and the formation of secondary atmospheric aerosols resulting from the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ammonia (NH3).
Human production and release of Nr into the environment is thus expected to have been an important driver of European greenhouse balance. Until now, no assessment has been made of how much of an effect European Nr emissions are having on net warming or cooling.
This chapter summarizes current knowledge of the role of Nr for global warming. Particular attention is given to the consequences of atmospheric Nr emissions. The chapter draws on inventory data and review of the literature to assess the contribution of anthropogenic atmospheric Nr emissons to the overall change in radiative forcing (between 1750 and 2005) that can be attributed to activities in Europe.
The use of Nr fertilizers has major additional effects on climate balance by allowing increased crop and feed production and larger populations of livestock and humans, but these indirect effects are not assessed here.
Anthropogenic releases of reactive nitrogen (Nr) can disturb natural systems and affect human health and welfare in many different ways. Scientific and policy views of the nitrogen cycle have typically addressed these problems from separate perspectives, looking in each case at only part of the overall issue.
Given the multi-faceted nature of the nitrogen cycle, it is a major challenge to develop a more-integrated understanding of how different areas of nitrogen science and policies fit together.
Observations from the first part of the European Nitrogen Assessment (ENA Part I) are summarized, considering the distinctive character of Nr in Europe, the benefits and threats, and the current policies. Approaches to developing the following parts of the Assessment are discussed with an emphasis on how to draw out the key issues.
Recognizing the multi-pollutant, multi-phase complexity of the nitrogen cycle, it is concluded that it is essential to focus on a limited set of priority issues to allow effective communication between nitrogen scientists and policy makers.
A pathway is developed for prioritization of the key environmental concerns of excess Nr. Starting with around twenty environmental effects, the list is reduced down, first to nine main concerns, and then to five key societal threats.