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The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
We aimed to provide comprehensive estimates of laboratory-confirmed respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated hospitalisations. Between 2012 and 2015, active surveillance of acute respiratory infection (ARI) hospitalisations during winter seasons was used to estimate the seasonal incidence of laboratory-confirmed RSV hospitalisations in children aged <5 years in Auckland, New Zealand (NZ). Incidence rates were estimated by fine age group, ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES) strata. Additionally, RSV disease estimates determined through active surveillance were compared to rates estimated from hospital discharge codes. There were 5309 ARI hospitalisations among children during the study period, of which 3923 (73.9%) were tested for RSV and 1597 (40.7%) were RSV-positive. The seasonal incidence of RSV-associated ARI hospitalisations, once corrected for non-testing, was 6.1 (95% confidence intervals 5.8–6.4) per 1000 children <5 years old. The highest incidence was among children aged <3 months. Being of indigenous Māori or Pacific ethnicity or living in a neighbourhood with low SES independently increased the risk of an RSV-associated hospitalisation. RSV hospital discharge codes had a sensitivity of 71% for identifying laboratory-confirmed RSV cases. RSV infection is a leading cause of hospitalisation among children in NZ, with significant disparities by ethnicity and SES. Our findings highlight the need for effective RSV vaccines and therapies.
We present an overview of the survey for radio emission from active stars that has been in progress for the last six years using the observatories at Fleurs, Molonglo, Parkes and Tidbinbilla. The role of complementary optical observations at the Anglo-Australian Observatory, Mount Burnett, Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories and Mount Tamborine are also outlined. We describe the different types of star that have been included in our survey and discuss some of the problems in making the radio observations.
The use of underground geological repositories, such as in radioactive waste disposal (RWD) and in carbon capture (widely known as Carbon Capture and Storage; CCS), constitutes a key environmental priority for the 21st century. Based on the identification of key scientific questions relating to the geophysics, geochemistry and geobiology of geodisposal of wastes, this paper describes the possibility of technology transfer from high-technology areas of the space exploration sector, including astrobiology, planetary sciences, astronomy, and also particle and nuclear physics, into geodisposal. Synergies exist between high technology used in the space sector and in the characterization of underground environments such as repositories, because of common objectives with respect to instrument miniaturization, low power requirements, durability under extreme conditions (in temperature and mechanical loads) and operation in remote or otherwise difficult to access environments.
Compare the severity of illnesses associated with influenza and noninfluenza acute respiratory illness (ARI) in healthcare personnel (HCP).
Prospective observational cohort.
HCP at 2 healthcare organizations with direct patient contact were enrolled prior to the 2010–2011 influenza season.
HCP who were fewer than 8 days from the start of fever/feverishness/chills and cough were eligible for real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction influenza virus testing of respiratory specimen. Illness severity was assessed by the sum of self-rated severity (0, absent; 3, severe) of 12 illness symptoms, subjective health (0, best health; 9, worst health), activities of daily living impairment (0, able to perform; 9, unable to perform), missed work, and duration of illness.
Of 1,701 HCP enrolled, 267 were tested for influenza, and 58 (22%) of these tested positive. Influenza compared with noninfluenza illnesses was associated with higher summed 12-symptom severity score (mean [standard deviation], 17.9 [5.4] vs 14.6 [4.8]; P < .001), worse subjective health (4.5 [1.8] vs 4.0 [1.8]; P < .05), greater impairment of activities of daily living (4.9 [2.5] vs 3.8 [2.5]; P < .01), and more missed work (12.1 [10.5] vs 7.8 [10.5] hours; P < .01). Differences in symptom severity, activities of daily living, and missed work remained significant after adjusting for illness and participant characteristics.
Influenza had a greater negative impact on HCP than noninfluenza ARIs, indicated by higher symptom severity scores, less ability to perform activities of daily living, and more missed work. These results highlight the importance of efforts to prevent influenza infection in HCP.
A variable frequency ferroelectric polarisation measurement system has been designed and built at the UK's Diamond Light Source. The electric field induced phase transitions in Pb(Zr1−xTix)O3 (PZT) have been used to test the facility via in-situ measurements of electric polarisation and XRD. Stroboscopic and real time data collection methods on polycrystalline samples were employed as a function of frequency to determine the dynamic ferroelectric response. The system has been shown to deliver XRD patterns of good statistical quality measured over 40 points of a ferroelectric PE loop. The system is now available on station I11 as a user facility at the Diamond Light Source.
The atom probe field-ion microscope has been used to study the diffusion at interfaces in metallic multilayers deposited directly onto field-ion specimens and to develop models for the solid state reactions occuring at the atomic-scale in multilayer systems. Results are presented for the low temperature annealing of a Co-Ni multilayer. Intermixing over about 2 atomic planes is found even in as-deposited samples, extending to mnm after heating at 300°C for 1 hour. Using atom probe results from bulk alloys, a Monte Carlo simulation has been developed for the Fe-Cr system, in which a miscibility gap exists, and is being used in an attempt to model the behaviour of interfaces in Fe-Cr multilayers. Preliminary results are presented, showing that interfaces which are initially mixed over 10 atomic planes become sharper by an ‘interface spinodal’ reaction.
One method for the fabrication of the superconducting compound Nb3Sn involves interdiffusion of a surface coating of Sn alloyed with Cu on Nb containing Zr and O. In this study, the kinetics and microstructure associated with this reaction have been studied in detail. The results show that small Nb3Sn grains nucleate at the Nb3Sn/Nb interface, and that the Nb3Sn grains experience grain growth immediately after they are formed. ZrO2 precipitates are observed in the Nb3Sn at the Nb3Sn/Nb interface and throughout the Nb3Sn. The ZrO2 precipitates occur in the form of small partially-coherent spheres in the Nb3Sn. No ZrO2 precipitates are observed by TEM in the unreacted Nb. The grain boundaries in the Nb3Sn region are coated with a Sn-Nb-Cu alloy which would have been liquid at the diffusion/reaction temperature. The thickness of the Nb3Sn reaction layer formed during the isothermal diffusion anneal is proportional to time to the first power, indicating “reaction”-controlled rather than “diffusion”-controlled kinetics. The absence of diffusion-controlled kinetics can be explained by the presence of the liquid coating on the Nb3Sn grains. Diffusion of Sn in this liquid layer is apparently fast enough to not be the limiting kinetic step.
We present evidence that an independently applied dc bias voltage has a significant effect on the plasma deposition of amorphous hydrogenated silicon carbide. Deposition rates increase with either positive or negative dc voltages applied to the powered rf electrode. The microstructure of the films (as determined by infrared absorption) can be reduced by increasing the plasma potential (positive dc bias voltages). Negative dc biases, or excessively high positive biases, result in increased amounts of film microstructure. Film carbon content is increased when positive biases are applied, but the optical band gaps decrease suggesting increased amounts of graphitic bonding configurations. Negative biases do not change the carbon content of the films, but do increase both deposition rate and microstructure.