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The use of grammars in design and analysis has been set back by the lack of automated ways to induce them from arbitrarily structured datasets. Machine translation methods provide a construct for inducing grammars from coded data which have been extended to be used for design through pre-coded design data. This work introduces a four-step process for inducing grammars from un-coded structured datasets which can constitute a wide variety of data types, including many used in the design. The method includes: (1) extracting objects from the data, (2) forming structures from objects, (3) expanding structures into rules based on frequency, and (4) finding rule similarities that lead to consolidation or abstraction. To evaluate this method, grammars are induced from generated data, architectural layouts and three-dimensional design models to demonstrate that this method offers usable grammars automatically which are functionally similar to grammars produced by hand.
We present an overview of the survey for radio emission from active stars that has been in progress for the last six years using the observatories at Fleurs, Molonglo, Parkes and Tidbinbilla. The role of complementary optical observations at the Anglo-Australian Observatory, Mount Burnett, Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories and Mount Tamborine are also outlined. We describe the different types of star that have been included in our survey and discuss some of the problems in making the radio observations.
Healthcare personnel (HCP) attire is an aspect of the medical profession steeped in culture and tradition. The role of attire in cross-transmission remains poorly established, and until more definitive information exists priority should be placed on evidence-based measures to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). This article aims to provide general guidance to the medical community regarding HCP attire outside the operating room. In addition to the initial guidance statement, the article has 3 major components: (1) a review and interpretation of the medical literature regarding (a) perceptions of HCP attire (from both HCP and patients) and (b) evidence for contamination of attire and its potential contribution to cross-transmission; (2) a review of hospital policies related to HCP attire, as submitted by members of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Guidelines Committee; and (3) a survey of SHEA and SHEA Research Network members that assessed both institutional HCP attire policies and perceptions of HCP attire in the cross-transmission of pathogens. Recommendations for HCP attire should attempt to balance professional appearance, comfort, and practicality with the potential role of apparel in the cross-transmission of pathogens. Although the optimal choice of HCP attire for inpatient care remains undefined, we provide recommendations on the use of white coats, neckties, footwear, the bare-below-the-elbows strategy, and laundering. Institutions considering these optional measures should introduce them with a well-organized communication and education effort directed at both HCP and patients. Appropriately designed studies are needed to better define the relationship between HCP attire and HAIs.
The transport properties of doped and undoped, high quality, plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy grown tin dioxide (SnO2) thin films are reviewed. Intentional doping can vary the SnO2 resistivity over more than seven orders of magnitude from a transparent conducting oxide-like conductivity up to the semi-insulating range. A region of high unintentional n-type conductivity was identified in the substrate interface region and had to be accounted for. Sb was a well-behaved shallow donor up to the regime of conducting oxides. In and Ga were too deep acceptors to achieve p-type conductivity but were suitable to render SnO2 semi-insulating. While the surface accumulation layer strongly influenced contact properties, its conductance was negligible. The methodology used here for studying the transport can also be applied to other semiconducting oxides.
The fields of modular reconfigurable robotics and programmable matter study how to compose functionally useful systems from configurations of modules. In addition to the external shape of a module configuration, the internal arrangement of modules and bonds between them can greatly impact functionally relevant mechanical properties such as load bearing ability. A fast method to evaluate the mechanical property aids the search for an arrangement of modules achieving a desired mechanical property as the space of possible configurations grows combinatorially. We present a fast approximate method where the bonds between modules are represented with stiffness matrices that are general enough to represent a wide variety of systems and follows the natural modular decomposition of the system. The method includes nonlinear modeling such as anisotropic bonds and properties that vary as components flex. We show that the arrangement of two types of bonds within a programmable matter systems enables programming the apparent elasticity of the structure. We also present a method to experimentally determine the stiffness matrix for chain style reconfigurable robots. The efficacy of applying the method is demonstrated on the CKBot modular robot and two programmable matter systems: the Rubik's snake folding chain toy and a right angle tetrahedron chain called RATChET7mm. By allowing the design space to be rapidly explored we open the door to optimizing modular structures for desired mechanical properties such as enhanced load bearing and robustness.
Polypeptide sequences have an inherent tendency to self-assemble into filamentous nanostructures commonly known as amyloid fibrils. Such self-assembly is used in nature to generate a variety of functional materials ranging from protective coatings in bacteria to catalytic scaffolds in mammals. The aberrant self-assembly of misfolded peptides and proteins is also, however, implicated in a range of disease states including neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. It is increasingly evident that the intrinsic material properties of these structures are crucial for understanding the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pathological deposition of proteins, particularly as the mechanical fragmentation of aggregates enhances the rate of protein deposition by exposing new fibril ends which can promote further growth. We discuss here recent advances in physical techniques that are able to characterise the hierarchical self-assembly of misfolded protein molecules and define their properties.
Infestations of glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed have become widespread in the eastern United States. This biotype is problematic in no-tillage production that relies extensively on glyphosate for weed control. Because horseweed is treated at various stages of growth, a greenhouse study explored rate response of glyphosate-resistant and -susceptible horseweed at three growth stages. GR horseweed was more responsive to glyphosate at the seedling stage than at the large rosette or bolting stages. A field study evaluated GR horseweed response when treated with glyphosate at soybean planting time, POST in-crop (about 45 d after planting), or both at planting and POST in-crop. There was a cumulative effect of the at-planting followed by POST in-crop glyphosate applications. When evaluating single glyphosate applications, the at-planting application was more effective at suppressing GR horseweed than a POST in-crop application. Because glyphosate cannot control GR horseweed, this biotype should be controlled with an herbicide with an alternate mode of action and applied at the most effective timing.
Se is an essential element for animals. In man low dietary Se intakes are associated with health disorders including oxidative stress-related conditions, reduced fertility and immune functions and an increased risk of cancers. Although the reference nutrient intakes for adult females and males in the UK are 60 and 75 μg Se/d respectively, dietary Se intakes in the UK have declined from >60 μg Se/d in the 1970s to 35 μg Se/d in the 1990s, with a concomitant decline in human Se status. This decline in Se intake and status has been attributed primarily to the replacement of milling wheat having high levels of grain Se and grown on high-Se soils in North America with UK-sourced wheat having low levels of grain Se and grown on low-Se soils. An immediate solution to low dietary Se intake and status is to enrich UK-grown food crops using Se fertilisers (agronomic biofortification). Such a strategy has been adopted with success in Finland. It may also be possible to enrich food crops in the longer term by selecting or breeding crop varieties with enhanced Se-accumulation characteristics (genetic biofortification). The present paper will review the potential for biofortification of UK food crops with Se.
In late February and early March 2002, an archaeological watching brief at Lynford Quarry, Mundford, Norfolk revealed a palaeochannel with a dark organic fill containing in situ mammoth remains and associated Mousterian stone tools and debitage buried under 2–3 m of bedded sands and gravels. Well-preserved in situ Middle Palaeolithic open air sites are very unusal in Europe and exceedingly rare within a British context. As such, the site was identified as being of national and international importance, and was subsequently excavated by the Norfolk Archaeological Unit with funding provided by English Heritage through the Aggregates Levy Sustainability Fund.
This report presents some of the initial results of the excavation. It sets out how the site was excavated, outlines the stratigraphic sequence for the site, and presents some provisional findings of the excavation based on the results of the assessment work carried out by project specialists and Norfolk Archaeological Unit staff.
Barium ferrite thin films with excellent perpendicular c-axis orientation were successfully fabricated on Si substrate without any buffer layer. To compensate for possible barium deficiency due to the inter-diffusion between films and substrate, a barium-rich target was used. For a 900 Å-thick film, the perpendicular remanent squareness is about 0.9, while the in-plane remanent squareness is about 0.3. The saturation magnetization (Ms) is about 220 emu/cc, while the coercivity is around 3500 Oe. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show the (001) perpendicular c-axis texture in the films. It was also found that the rapid thermal annealing conditions greatly affect the magnetic properties of barium ferrite films. With a certain flow rate of oxygen gas in the rapid thermal annealer (RTA), barium ferrite films generally crystallize with good perpendicular c-axis texture. Without oxygen gas, the hexagonal barium ferrite phase fails to develop; instead spinel Fe 30 4 phase forms. The reason for the collapsing of hexagonal barium ferrite texture is thought to be an oxygen deficiency in the barium ferrite films due to the reduction of oxygen in the films during the high temperature annealing.
Barium ferrite thin films with excellent perpendicular c-axis orientation were successfully fabricated on Si substrate without any buffer layer. To compensate for possible barium deficiency due to the inter-diffusion between films and substrate, a barium-rich target was used. For a 900 Å-thick film, the perpendicular remanent squareness is about 0.9, while the in-plane remanent squareness is about 0.3. The saturation magnetization (Ms) is about 220 emu/cc, while the coercivity is around 3500 Oe. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show the (001) perpendicular c-axis texture in the films. It was also found that the rapid thermal annealing conditions greatly affect the magnetic properties of barium ferrite films. With a certain flow rate of oxygen gas in the rapid thermal annealer (RTA), barium ferrite films generally crystallize with good perpendicular c-axis texture. Without oxygen gas, the hexagonal barium ferrite phase fails to develop; instead spinel Fe3O4 phase forms. The reason for the collapsing of hexagonal barium ferrite texture is thought to be an oxygen deficiency in the barium ferrite films due to the reduction of oxygen in the films during the high temperature annealing.
This paper reports a novel family of aluminophosphate based molecular sieves denoted as VPI-5. These molecular sieves are the first to contain pores larger than 10 Å. The large pores of the VPI-5 sieves consist of long channels circumscribed by eighteen membered rings and are capable of adsorbing molecules excluded from other molecular sieves.