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Smooth scouringrush is a creeping perennial with a high silica content in stems that may impede herbicide uptake. Smooth scouringrush has become a troublesome weed in no-till cropping systems across eastern Washington. In previous field studies, glyphosate provided inconsistent control of smooth scouringrush. The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of an organosilicone surfactant to glyphosate would improve the efficacy and consistency of control through stomatal flooding. To test this hypothesis, glyphosate was applied at three field sites at 3.78 kg ae ha–1 alone, with an organosilicone surfactant (OS1 or OS2), an organosilicone plus nonionic surfactant blend, or an alcohol-based surfactant applied during the day or at night. Stem counts were recorded 1 yr after herbicide applications. Five of the six effective treatments observed across the three study sites included organosilicone surfactant or an organosilicone plus nonionic surfactant blend. At two sites, when there was a difference in efficacy between application times; daytime applications were more effective than nighttime applications. These results support the hypothesis of stomatal flooding as a likely mechanism for enhanced efficacy of glyphosate with the addition of an organosilicone surfactant. However, at one site, the treatments containing organosilicone surfactant were more efficacious when applied at night than during the day. At this site, high daytime temperatures and low relative humidity may have resulted in rapid evaporation of spray droplets. The addition of an organosilicone surfactant to glyphosate is recommended for smooth scouringrush control, and daytime treatments are preferred but should be applied when temperatures and humidity are not conducive to rapid droplet drying. Further research is necessary to confirm that stomatal flooding is responsible for improved glyphosate efficacy.
Rush skeletonweed is an invasive weed in the winter wheat–fallow production regions of the inland Pacific Northwest. The objectives of this study were to determine the dose response of rush skeletonweed to picloram applied in the fall or spring of the fallow year with either a broadcast or weed-sensing sprayer, and to evaluate injury and grain yield in the subsequent winter wheat crop from these fallow treatments. Field studies were conducted between 2019 and 2022. Fall treatments were applied at one site in 2019, and one site in 2020. Spring treatments were applied at two sites in 2021. Four picloram herbicide rates (0, 140, 280, and 560 g ae ha−1), were applied with either a weed-sensing precision applicator or with a standard broadcast spray applicator. Rush skeletonweed densities in the wheat crop following fall-applied treatments declined with increasing picloram rates at both sites. Treatments applied with the weed-sensing sprayer achieved similar efficacy to broadcast treatments with an average of 37% and 26% of the broadcast rate applied. Spring-applied broadcast treatments resulted in reduced rush skeletonweed densities in wheat with increasing picloram rates. Picloram rate had no apparent effect on rush skeletonweed density when applied in the spring with a weed-sensing sprayer; however, the weed-sensing sprayer applied just 16% and 9% of the broadcast rate. Winter wheat grain yields were not reduced by fall picloram applications. Grain yields were not reduced by spring applications of picloram with the weed-sensing sprayer; however, grain yields were reduced by spring broadcast applications of picloram at both locations, and grain yields declined as the picloram rate increased. Applying picloram in the fall of the fallow phase with a weed-sensing sprayer provides effective and economical control of rush skeletonweed with a low risk for crop injury and yield loss in the following winter wheat crop.
Smooth scouringrush has invaded no-till production fields across the US Pacific Northwest. The ability of Equisetum species to take up and accumulate silica on the epidermis and in cell walls may affect herbicide uptake. The objectives of this study were to measure the silica concentration in smooth scouringrush stems over time, and to determine how time of application affects the efficacy of glyphosate for smooth scouringrush control, with and without the addition of an organosilicone surfactant (OSS). Field studies were conducted at three sites in eastern Washington from 2019 to 2021. Three herbicide treatments (no herbicide, glyphosate, and glyphosate + OSS) were applied at four application times (May, June, July, and August) in 2019 fallow. The silica content of smooth scouringrush stems increased over the course of the 2019 growing season at all three sites. In 2020, smooth scouringrush stem densities were reduced when the 2019 herbicide treatments were applied in late June (12% of no herbicide density) compared to late July (24%) or August (30%). Smooth scouringrush stem densities at all three sites, in both 2020 and 2021, were reduced in the glyphosate + OSS treatment compared to glyphosate alone. In 2021, 2 yr after herbicide application, there was no effect of application timing for the glyphosate treatment without OSS, but stem densities were reduced when glyphosate + OSS was applied in late June (1%) compared with applications in late July (26%) or late August (21%). It is not clear if the cause of reduced glyphosate efficacy with late July and late August applications is the result of increased silica content in smooth scouringrush stems over time. Maximum glyphosate efficacy on smooth scouringrush was achieved with an application in late June and with the addition of an OSS. Control of smooth scouringrush with glyphosate + OSS can be sustained for at least 2 yr after application.
Rush skeletonweed is an invasive weed in winter wheat (WW)/summer fallow (SF) rotations in the low to intermediate rainfall areas of the inland Pacific Northwest. Standard weed control practices are not effective, resulting in additional SF tillage or herbicide applications. The objective of this field research was to identify herbicide treatments that control rush skeletonweed during the SF phase of the WW/SF rotation. Trials were conducted near LaCrosse, WA, in 2017–2019 and 2018–2020, and near Hay, WA, in 2018–2020. The LaCrosse 2017–2019 trial was in tilled SF; the other two trials were in no-till SF. Fall postharvest applications in October included clopyralid, clopyralid plus 2,4-D, clopyralid plus 2,4-D plus chlorsulfuron plus metsulfuron, aminopyralid, picloram, and glyphosate plus 2,4-D. Spring treatments of clopyralid, aminopyralid, and glyphosate were applied to rush skeletonweed rosettes. Summer treatments of 2,4-D were applied when rush skeletonweed initiated bolting. Plant density was monitored through the SF phase in all plots. Picloram provided complete control of rush skeletonweed through June at all three locations. Fall-applied clopyralid, clopyralid plus 2,4-D, and clopyralid followed by 2,4-D in summer reduced rush skeletonweed through June at the two LaCrosse sites but were ineffective at Hay. In August, just prior to WW seeding, the greatest reductions in rush skeletonweed density were achieved with picloram and fall-applied clopyralid at the two LaCrosse sites. No treatments provided effective control into August at Hay. Wheat yield in the next crop compared to the nontreated control was reduced only at one LaCrosse site by a spring-applied aminopyralid treatment, otherwise no other reductions were found. Long-term control of rush skeletonweed in WW/SF may be achieved by a combination of fall application of picloram, after wheat harvest, followed by an effective burn-down treatment in August prior to WW seeding.
The benefits of no-till fallow, which include reduced soil erosion, improved soil health, and increased stored soil water, are in jeopardy because of the widespread development of glyphosate resistance in Russian thistle. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of soil-active, residual herbicides for Russian thistle control in no-till fallow. The combinations of sulfentrazone + carfentrazone and flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone, and metribuzin alone were each applied in late fall, late winter, and split-applied in late fall and late winter at three sites: Adams, OR, in 2017–2018; Lind, WA, in 2018–2019; and Ralston, WA, in 2019–2020. All treatments provided good to excellent control of the initial flush of Russian thistle when assessed in mid-May, except the late-fall application of metribuzin at all three sites, and the late-fall application of sulfentrazone + carfentrazone at Adams. Cumulative Russian thistle densities, evaluated monthly throughout the fallow season, were lowest for the sulfentrazone + carfentrazone treatments, except for the late-fall application at Adams. However, flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone and metribuzin provided greater control of tumble mustard and prickly lettuce than did sulfentrazone + carfentazone. Sulfentrazone + carfentrazone, flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone, and metribuzin can all be used for Russian thistle control in fallow. To reduce the risk for crop injury to subsequently planted winter wheat, a late-fall application of sulfentrazone + carfentrazone may be the preferred treatment in low-rainfall regions where winter wheat–fallow is commonly practiced. A late-winter application may be preferred in higher rainfall regions where a 3-year rotation (e.g., winter wheat–spring wheat–fallow) is common. Flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone should be considered if other broadleaf weeds, such as tumble mustard or prickly lettuce, are of concern. The use of these soil-applied herbicides will reduce the need for the frequent application of glyphosate for Russian thistle control in no-till fallow.
Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) may control problematic weeds by decreasing contributions to the weed seedbank. However, HWSC practices will not be effective if plants have shed a great part of their seeds before harvest or if a low proportion of seed production is retained at a height that enables collection during harvest. The seed-shattering pattern of several weed species was evaluated over three growing seasons to determine their potential to be controlled with HWSC in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). The studied weed species were downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), feral rye (Secale cereale L.), Italian ryegrass [Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot], and rattail fescue [Vulpia myuros (L.) C.C. Gmel.]. Seed retention at harvest, seed production, and plant height differed among species, locations, and years. Environmental conditions influenced seed-shattering patterns, particularly the time plants started to shatter seeds and the rate of the shattering. Agronomic factors such as herbicide use, interrow space, or crop height/vigor also seemed to affect shattering patterns and seed production, but more specific studies must be conducted to determine their individual effects. Bromus tectorum, L. perenne ssp. multiflorum, and V. myuros had an average seed retention at harvest of less than 50%. In addition, the low seed retention height of V. myuros makes this species a poor candidate for HWSC. Secale cereale had average seed retention at harvest greater than 50%, and seed retention height was greater than 30 cm. The variability of seed retention in different species will make the efficacy of HWSC practices species and environment dependent in PNW winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping systems. Harvesting the wheat crop as early as possible will be crucial to the success of HWSC.
Rush skeletonweed is an aggressive perennial weed that establishes itself on land in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), and persists during cropping following contract expiration. It depletes critical soil moisture required for yield potential of winter wheat. In a winter wheat/fallow cropping system, weed control is maintained with glyphosate and tillage during conventional fallow, and with herbicides only in no-till fallow. Research was conducted for control of rush skeletonweed at two sites in eastern Washington, Lacrosse and Hay, to compare the effectiveness of a weed-sensing sprayer and broadcast applications of four herbicides (aminopyralid, chlorsulfuron + metsulfuron, clopyralid, and glyphosate). Experimental design was a split-plot with herbicide and application type as main and subplot factors, respectively. Herbicides were applied in the fall at either broadcast or spot-spraying rates depending on sprayer type. Rush skeletonweed density in May was reduced with use of aminopyralid (1.1 plants m−2), glyphosate (1.4 plants m−2), clopyralid (1.7 plants m−2), and chlorsulfuron + metsulfuron (1.8 plants m−2) compared with the nontreated check (2.6 plants m−2). No treatment differences were observed after May 2019. There was no interaction between herbicide and application system. Area covered using the weed-sensing sprayer was, on average, 52% (P < 0.001) less than the broadcast application at the Lacrosse location but only 20% (P = 0.01) at the Hay location. Spray reduction is dependent on foliar cover in relation to weed density and size. At Lacrosse, the weed-sensing sprayer reduced costs for all herbicide treatments except aminopyralid, with savings up to US$6.80 per hectare. At Hay, the weed-sensing sprayer resulted in economic loss for all products because of higher rush skeletonweed density. The weed-sensing sprayer is a viable fallow weed control tool when weed densities are low or patchy.
Rush skeletonweed is emerging as a regionally important weed of winter wheat production in eastern Washington. Field studies were conducted during the 2016 and 2017 crop years to evaluate several auxin herbicides applied at two seasonal timings (fall or spring) for control of rush skeletonweed in winter wheat. Clopyralid (210 g ae ha-1) provided>90% visual control of rush skeletonweed in both years of the study and aminopyralid (10 g ae ha-1) provided>80% visual control. Aminocyclopyrachlor, dicamba, and 2,4-D provided<55% control of rush skeletonweed. Season of application did not meaningfully affect efficacy of any herbicide tested. Wheat yields were reduced by 39 to 69% compared to the non-treated check when aminocyclopyrachlor was applied in the spring. Clopyralid is an effective option for control of rush skeletonweed in Pacific Northwest winter wheat.
No-till cropping is an option for growers needing to reduce soil erosion in the Palouse annual-cropped region of the Pacific Northwest, which is well suited for wheat production. A 6-yr field study was conducted to determine optimum levels of fertilizer and herbicide inputs in a no-till continuous wheat crop production system. Three levels of nitrogen (N) and two weed management levels (WML) were compared in a spring wheat (SW)–winter wheat (WW)–WW rotation through two rotation cycles. The high WML reduced weed densities about 50% compared with the low WML. In general, herbicide treatments were more effective on broadleaf weeds and may have facilitated a shift toward grass weeds. The high WML reduced grass weed biomass only at the reduced N levels, whereas the high WML reduced broadleaf weed density at all N levels. Variable environmental conditions affected wheat yield; however, yield tended to be highest where winter wheat immediately followed spring wheat. Nitrogen had little effect on weed density but increased crop yield about 13% with each increased N level. Crop yield was greater at the high versus low WML at each N level, even though weed density and biomass were reduced least between WMLs at the highest N level. The highest crop yield and net returns were obtained with the highest N and WML; however, none of the N and WML combinations were profitable.
The fields of modular reconfigurable robotics and programmable matter study how to compose functionally useful systems from configurations of modules. In addition to the external shape of a module configuration, the internal arrangement of modules and bonds between them can greatly impact functionally relevant mechanical properties such as load bearing ability. A fast method to evaluate the mechanical property aids the search for an arrangement of modules achieving a desired mechanical property as the space of possible configurations grows combinatorially. We present a fast approximate method where the bonds between modules are represented with stiffness matrices that are general enough to represent a wide variety of systems and follows the natural modular decomposition of the system. The method includes nonlinear modeling such as anisotropic bonds and properties that vary as components flex. We show that the arrangement of two types of bonds within a programmable matter systems enables programming the apparent elasticity of the structure. We also present a method to experimentally determine the stiffness matrix for chain style reconfigurable robots. The efficacy of applying the method is demonstrated on the CKBot modular robot and two programmable matter systems: the Rubik's snake folding chain toy and a right angle tetrahedron chain called RATChET7mm. By allowing the design space to be rapidly explored we open the door to optimizing modular structures for desired mechanical properties such as enhanced load bearing and robustness.