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To determine the rate of recurrent major trauma (i.e., trauma recidivism) using a provincial population-based trauma registry. We compared outcomes between recidivists and non-recidivists, and assessed factors associated with recidivism and mortality.
Review of all adult (>17 years) major trauma patients in Nova Scotia (2001–2015) using data from the Nova Scotia Trauma Registry. Outcomes of interest were mortality, duration of hospital stay, and in-hospital complications. Multiple regression was used to assess factors associated with recidivism and mortality.
Of 9,365 major trauma patients, 2% (150/9365) were recidivists. Mean age at initial injury was 52 ± 21.5 years; 73% were male. The mortality rate for both recidivists and non-recidivists was 31%. However, after adjusting for potential confounders the likelihood of mortality was over 3 times greater for recidivists compared to non-recidivists (OR 3.67, 95% CI 2.06–6.54). Other factors associated with mortality included age, male gender, penetrating injury, Injury Severity Score, trauma team activation (TTA) and admission to the intensive care unit. The only variables associated with recidivism were age (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97–1.00) and TTA (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.34–0.96).
This is the first provincial investigation of major trauma recidivism in Canada. While recidivism was infrequent (2%), the adjusted odds of mortality were over three times greater for recidivists. Further research is warranted to determine the effectiveness of strategies for reducing rates of major trauma recidivism such as screening and brief intervention in cases of violence or substance abuse.
Education is a crucial social determinant of health. Food insecurity can be detrimental to children’s academic achievement, potentially perpetuating a cycle of poverty and food insecurity. We aimed to assess the relationship between food insecurity and academic achievement in Canadian school-aged children.
Cross-sectional study of children and parents. Parents completed the short-form Household Food Security Survey Module and questions about income and education level (socio-economic status). Children completed FFQ. Data were prospectively linked to children’s performance on standardized exams written one year later. Mixed-effect logistic regression was employed to assess the relationship between food insecurity and likelihood of meeting academic expectations adjusting for socio-economic status, diet quality and potential confounders.
Nova Scotia, Canada in 2011–2012.
Students (n 4105) in grade 5 (10–11 years; 2167 girls) and their parents.
Low food security was reported by 9·8 % of households; very low food security by 7·1 % of households. Students from low-income households and reporting poor diet quality were less likely to do well in school. Children who lived in households reporting very low food security had 0·65 times the odds (OR=0·65; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·96) of meeting expectations for reading and 0·62 times the odds (OR=0·62; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·86) of meeting expectations for mathematics.
Very low household insecurity is associated with poor academic achievement among children in Nova Scotia.
Trauma systems have been widely implemented across Canada, but access to trauma care remains a challenge for much of the population. This study aims to develop and validate a model to quantify the accessibility of definitive care within one provincial trauma system and identify populations with poor access to trauma care.
A geographic information system (GIS) was used to generate models of pre-scene and post-scene intervals, respectively. Models were validated using a population-based trauma registry containing data on prehospital time intervals and injury locations for Nova Scotia (NS). Validated models were then applied to describe the population-level accessibility of trauma care for the NS population as well as a cohort of patients injured in motor vehicle collisions (MVCs).
Predicted post-scene intervals were found to be highly correlated with documented post-scene intervals (β 1.05, p<0.001). Using the model, it was found that 88.1% and 42.7% of the population had access to Level III and Level I trauma care within 60 minutes of prehospital time from their residence, respectively. Access for victims of MVCs was lower, with 84.3% and 29.7% of the cohort having access to Level III and Level I trauma care within 60 minutes of the location of injury, respectively.
GIS models can be used to identify populations with poor access to care and inform service planning in Canada. Although only 43% of the provincial population has access to Level I care within 60 minutes, the majority of the population of NS has access to Level III trauma care.
Alcohol is a significant risk factor for injury, and is one of the leading causes of death, disability and premature mortality among young Canadians. This paper provides an overview of alcohol-related injury among adolescents and young adults presenting to Canadian emergency departments (EDs).
We reviewed records from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program database during the 4-year period between 2000 and 2003. We included individuals younger than 25 years who presented to EDs in 11 pediatric and general hospitals with injuries for which alcohol, either alone or in conjunction with drugs, was recorded as a contributing factor. We examined key socio-demographic and injury-related factors associated with alcohol and drug-related injuries, including intent and disposition.
Alcohol was identified as a factor in 2389 injuries during this 4-year period; 408 (17%) of these cases also involved drug use. Approximately 55% of these patients were male and the majority was between 15 and 19 years of age. Unintentional injuries were the most common presentation, self-harm injuries were more common among female patients and violence-related injuries were more common among male patients. Most patients received treatment for their injuries. However, as age increased, outcome differences were observed between sexes.
Alcohol-related injuries are increasing among Canadian youth. These findings highlight the importance of obtaining thorough drug and alcohol histories and measurement, when appropriate, for adolescents and young adults presenting to EDs with injuries.
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