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Life course research embraces the complexity of health and disease development, tackling the extensive interactions between genetics and environment. This interdisciplinary blueprint, or theoretical framework, offers a structure for research ideas and specifies relationships between related factors. Traditionally, methodological approaches attempt to reduce the complexity of these dynamic interactions and decompose health into component parts, ignoring the complex reciprocal interaction of factors that shape health over time. New methods that match the epistemological foundation of the life course framework are needed to fully explore adaptive, multilevel, and reciprocal interactions between individuals and their environment. The focus of this article is to (1) delineate the differences between lifespan and life course research, (2) articulate the importance of complex systems science as a methodological framework in the life course research toolbox to guide our research questions, (3) raise key questions that can be asked within the clinical and translational science domain utilizing this framework, and (4) provide recommendations for life course research implementation, charting the way forward. Recent advances in computational analytics, computer science, and data collection could be used to approximate, measure, and analyze the intertwining and dynamic nature of genetic and environmental factors involved in health development.
In Victoria, Australia, a statewide salt reduction partnership was launched in 2015. The aim was to measure Na intake, food sources of Na (level of processing, purchase origin) and discretionary salt use in a cross-section of Victorian adults prior to a salt reduction initiative. In 2016/2017, participants completed a 24-h urine collection (n 338) and a subsample completed a 24-h dietary recall (n 142). Participants were aged 41·2 (sd 13·9) years, and 56 % were females. Mean 24-h urinary excretion was 138 (95 % CI 127, 149) mmol/d for Na. Salt equivalent was 8·1 (95 % CI 7·4, 8·7) g/d, equating to about 8·9 (95 % CI 8·1, 9·6) g/d after 10 % adjustment for non-urinary losses. Mean 24-h intake estimated by diet recall was 118 (95 % CI 103, 133) mmol/d for Na (salt 6·9 (95 % CI 6·0, 7·8 g/d)). Leading dietary sources of Na were cereal-based mixed dishes (12 %), English muffins, flat/savoury/sweet breads (9 %), regular breads/rolls (9 %), gravies and savoury sauces (7 %) and processed meats (7 %). Over one-third (38 %) of Na consumed was derived from discretionary foods. Half of all Na consumed came from ultra-processed foods. Dietary Na derived from foods was obtained from retail stores (51 %), restaurants and fast-food/takeaway outlets (28 %) and fresh food markets (9 %). One-third (32 %) of participants reported adding salt at the table and 61 % added salt whilst cooking. This study revealed that salt intake was above recommended levels with diverse sources of intake. Results from this study suggest a multi-faceted salt reduction strategy focusing on the retail sector, and food reformulation would most likely benefit Victorians and has been used to inform the ongoing statewide salt reduction initiative.
In 2017, Hurricane Maria exposed a colonial-era settlement at LaSoye on the Caribbean island of Dominica. Evidence suggests that this was a seventeenth- to eighteenth-century Dutch trading factory built over an earlier Kalinago settlement, and a place of early interaction between Indigenous peoples and Europeans.
Filarial nematodes possess glutathione transferases (GSTs), ubiquitous enzymes with the potential to detoxify xenobiotic and endogenous substrates, and modulate the host immune system, which may aid worm infection establishment, maintenance and survival in the host. Here we have identified and characterized a σ class glycosylated GST (OoGST1), from the cattle-infective filarial nematode Onchocerca ochengi, which is homologous (99% amino acid identity) with an immunodominant GST and potential vaccine candidate from the human parasite, O. volvulus, (OvGST1b). Onchocerca ochengi native GSTs were purified using a two-step affinity chromatography approach, resolved by 2D and 1D SDS-PAGE and subjected to enzymic deglycosylation revealing the existence of at least four glycoforms. A combination of lectin-blotting and mass spectrometry (MS) analyses of the released N-glycans indicated that OoGST1 contained mainly oligomannose Man5GlcNAc2 structure, but also hybrid- and larger oligommanose-type glycans in a lower proportion. Furthermore, purified OoGST1 showed prostaglandin synthase activity as confirmed by Liquid Chromatography (LC)/MS following a coupled-enzyme assay. This is only the second reported and characterized glycosylated GST and our study highlights its potential role in host-parasite interactions and use in the study of human onchocerciasis.
Despite many notable successes, the failure rate of animal translocations remains high. Conservation practitioners and reintroduction specialists have emphasised the need for ongoing documentation of translocation attempts, whether successful or not, including detailed methodologies and monitoring approaches. This study reports on the first translocation of the North Island subspecies of New Zealand’s smallest bird, the endemic Rifleman Acanthisitta chloris granti. We describe an improved transfer methodology following recommendations arising from a previous translocation of South Island Rifleman Acanthisitta chloris chloris. Key modifications included a reduced capture window, shorter holding times, lack of extended aviary housing, and separation of territorial individuals during holding. Survival from capture to release increased from 52% to 97% using this new methodology. However, only 22% of 83 released birds were found in the reserve the next breeding season, resulting in an initial breeding population of only six males and five females. An integrated Bayesian analysis of three years of subsequent population data, including a population boost from a second translocation, projected a median decrease to 0–5 females over 10 years, but with 95% prediction intervals ranging from 0 to 33. These projections explicitly account for parameter uncertainty, as well as demographic stochasticity, and illustrate the need to do so when making inferences for small reintroduced populations.
Asia, a region grappling with the impacts of climate change, increasing natural disasters, and transboundary water issues, faces major challenges to water security. Water resources there are closely tied to the dramatic Hindu-Kush Himalayan (HKH) mountain range, where over 46,000 glaciers hold some of the largest repositories of fresh water on earth (Qiu 2010). Often described as the water tower of Asia, the HKH harbors the snow and ice that form the headwaters of the continent's major rivers (Bandyopadhyay 2013). Downstream, this network of river systems sustains more than 1.3 billion people who depend on these freshwater sources for their consumption and agricultural production, and increasingly as a source of hydropower (Immerzeel, Van Beek, and Bierkens 2010; National Research Council 2012; Rasul 2014).
The Z-backlighter laser facility primarily consists of two high energy, high-power laser systems. Z-Beamlet laser (ZBL) (Rambo et al., Appl. Opt. 44, 2421 (2005)) is a multi-kJ-class, nanosecond laser operating at 1054 nm which is frequency doubled to 527 nm in order to provide x-ray backlighting of high energy density events on the Z-machine. Z-Petawatt (ZPW) (Schwarz et al., J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 112, 032020 (2008)) is a petawatt-class system operating at 1054 nm delivering up to 500 J in 500 fs for backlighting and various short-pulse laser experiments (see also Figure 10 for a facility overview). With the development of the magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) concept on the Z-machine, the primary backlighting missions of ZBL and ZPW have been adjusted accordingly. As a result, we have focused our recent efforts on increasing the output energy of ZBL from 2 to 4 kJ at 527 nm by modifying the fiber front end to now include extra bandwidth (for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression). The MagLIF concept requires a well-defined/behaved beam for interaction with the pressurized fuel. Hence we have made great efforts to implement an adaptive optics system on ZBL and have explored the use of phase plates. We are also exploring concepts to use ZPW as a backlighter for ZBL driven MagLIF experiments. Alternatively, ZPW could be used as an additional fusion fuel pre-heater or as a temporally flexible high energy pre-pulse. All of these concepts require the ability to operate the ZPW in a nanosecond long-pulse mode, in which the beam can co-propagate with ZBL. Some of the proposed modifications are complete and most of them are well on their way.
The objectives of this study were to compare behaviour problems and competencies, at home and school, in 7-year-old children with congenital heart disease with a sibling control group, to examine the prospective determinants of outcome from infancy, and to explore whether any gains were maintained in our sub-group of children who had participated in a previous trial of psychological interventions in infancy.
A total of 40 children who had undergone surgery to correct or palliate a significant congenital heart defect in infancy were compared (Child Behavior Checklist) with a nearest-age sibling control group (18 participants). Comparisons were made between sub-groups of children and families who had and had not participated in an early intervention trial.
Problems with attention, thought and social problems, and limitations in activity and school competencies, were found in comparison with siblings. Teacher reports were consistent with parents, although problems were of a lower magnitude. Disease, surgical, and neurodevelopmental functioning in infancy were related to competence outcomes but not behaviour problems. The latter were mediated by family and maternal mental health profiles from infancy. Limited, but encouraging, gains were maintained in the sub-group that had participated in the early intervention programme.
The present study is strengthened by its longitudinal design, use of teacher informants, and sibling control group. The patterns of problems and limitations discerned, and differential determinants thereof, have clear implications for interventions. We consider these in the light of our previously reported intervention trial with this sample and current outcomes at the 7-year follow-up.
There is increasing emphasis on the need for effective ways of sharing knowledge to enhance environmental management and sustainability. Knowledge exchange (KE) are processes that generate, share and/or use knowledge through various methods appropriate to the context, purpose, and participants involved. KE includes concepts such as sharing, generation, coproduction, comanagement, and brokerage of knowledge. This paper elicits the expert knowledge of academics involved in research and practice of KE from different disciplines and backgrounds to review research themes, identify gaps and questions, and develop a research agenda for furthering understanding about KE. Results include 80 research questions prefaced by a review of research themes. Key conclusions are: (1) there is a diverse range of questions relating to KE that require attention; (2) there is a particular need for research on understanding the process of KE and how KE can be evaluated; and (3) given the strong interdependency of research questions, an integrated approach to understanding KE is required. To improve understanding of KE, action research methodologies and embedding evaluation as a normal part of KE research and practice need to be encouraged. This will foster more adaptive approaches to learning about KE and enhance effectiveness of environmental management.
The eccentric orbits of the known extrasolar giant planets provide evidence that most planet-forming environments undergo violent dynamical instabilities. Here, we numerically simulate the impact of giant planet instabilities on planetary systems as a whole. We find that populations of inner rocky and outer icy bodies are both shaped by the giant planet dynamics and are naturally correlated. Strong instabilities – those with very eccentric surviving giant planets – completely clear out their inner and outer regions. In contrast, systems with stable or low-mass giant planets form terrestrial planets in their inner regions and outer icy bodies produce dust that is observable as debris disks at mid-infrared wavelengths. Fifteen to twenty percent of old stars are observed to have bright debris disks (at λ ~ 70μm) and we predict that these signpost dynamically calm environments that should contain terrestrial planets.
We discuss policy towards call termination on mobile telephone networks, illustrated by the 2002 Competition Commission inquiry into the UK mobile market. This was an unusually complicated inquiry (the report was printed in three volumes). The case demonstrates the utility of employing stripped-down economic models to cast light on complex interactions between firms and consumers. Doing so reveals that, by and large, the findings of the Competition Commission and existing economic models are consistent, although we also highlight some points of divergence. In some cases these differences reflect inadequacies in the theory, which we will try to address, while in other cases they reflect statements by the Competition Commission – and especially by some of the mobile networks during the inquiry – which are difficult to reconcile with reasonable economic analysis.
The investigation concerned the call-termination charges levied by four mobile networks in the UK: O2, Orange, T-Mobile and Vodafone. Call termination refers to the wholesale service whereby a network completes (or ‘terminates’) a call made to one of its subscribers by a subscriber on another telephone network. Typically, the originating network pays the terminating network for completing calls. The wholesale price it pays is known as the termination charge. There are two broad kinds of call termination on mobile networks: termination of calls made from other mobile networks (termed mobile-to-mobile, or MTM, termination in the following discussion) and termination of calls made by callers on the fixed telecoms network (fixed-to-mobile, or FTM, termination).
This paper describes a cognitive model for first/second onset depression that has been precipitated by major life stress, entrenched for several months and is unresponsive to pharmacotherapy. These conditions create high risks for recurrent/chronic depression and early intervention is proposed to identify, treat and protect against relapse/recurrence. Severe life stress interacts with an individual's core self-representations and personal values, identity is disrupted and depression is maintained by dysfunctional goal engagement and disengagement. Treatment aims to restore functional self-regulation by increasing self-diversification and creating balanced goal investments. Outcome and follow-up data are reported in a case series of five consecutive patients. There was good therapist adherence to the prescribed targets and pre-post effect sizes were comparable or larger than published outcome studies. At the 12 month follow-up, three of the four treatment completers (75%) had made reliable and clinically significant changes and were in full remission. This provides encouraging preliminary evidence for the model's validity and the therapy's efficacy.
Over the last two decades, there has been increasing attention to community archaeology, an archaeology which acknowledges the impact of archaeological research upon the communities among which it is conducted. Doing fieldwork has tangible effects upon the people we work among: archaeologists provide employment, spend money locally, negotiate local power structures, provide exotic connections, and, not least, change the landscape of knowledge by helping local people understand more or different things about their ancestors and about their own historical identity. While this is true worldwide, within American Historical Archaeology this strand of research has converged with a tradition of sophisticated materialist analysis highlighting not only class domination but also resistance and the persistence of alternative practices, ideologies and identities. A key element of this archaeology is public participation in the process of revealing a past of domination, struggle and resistance. The result is an archaeology which aspires not only to revise traditionally endorsed accounts of American history, but also to be an activist archaeology.
Mark Leone began this line of activist, participatory historical archaeology many years ago in Annapolis, and many of the scholars currently contributing to this body of work have been trained or inspired by this project. In The Archaeology of Liberty in an American Capital, Leone summarizes twenty-five years of research at Annapolis.
The Archaeology of Liberty in an American Capital: Excavations in Annapolis has received the Society for Historical Archaeology's James Deetz Book Award for 2008.
The concept of public service broadcasting (PSB) is for many people summed up by the mission given to the BBC by its first Director General, John Reith, in the 1920s: to ‘inform, educate and entertain’. This broad statement encompasses several elements, some clearly appealing to viewers themselves (to entertain), others with wider social purposes (to educate and inform)., The aims of public service broadcasting would therefore appear to encompass two main strands: that television should give people the programmes that they want to watch and that it should also satisfy wider social purposes such as education and the promotion of ‘citizenship’. Reflecting these strands, in this chapter we discuss two broad questions concerning the provision of television broadcasting:
Will the television broadcasting market give people what they want to watch?
Should people be allowed to watch only what they want to watch?
The first question investigates the traditional ‘market failure’ arguments for public intervention in broadcasting. These hold that the commercial broadcasting market will fail to meet viewers' demands in a number of important respects. Advertising-funded broadcasters will produce a bland diet of low-quality programmes, appealing to mass-market tastes and ignoring niche interests. We explore the basis for these arguments by assessing market provision of television broadcasting. Specifically, we consider whether audience numbers will be efficient, whether the level of advertising is appropriate and whether the right mix of programmes, in terms of diversity and quality of content, will be produced.
This paper surveys the recent literature on price discrimination. The focus is on three aspects of pricing decisions: the information about customers available to firms; the instruments firms can use in the design of their tariffs; and the ability of firms to commit to their pricing plans. Developments in marketing technology mean that firms often have access to more information about individual customers than was previously the case. The use of this information might be restricted by public policy towards customer privacy. Where it is not restricted, firms may be unable to commit to how they use the information. With monopoly supply, an increased ability to engage in price discrimination will boost profit unless the firm cannot commit to its pricing policy. Likewise, an enhanced ability to commit to prices will benefit a monopolist. With competition, the effects of price discrimination on profit, consumer surplus and overall welfare depend on the kinds of information and/or tariff instruments available to firms. The ability to commit to prices may damage industry profit.
This paper surveys, in a highly selective manner, recent progress that has been made in the economic understanding of price discrimination. One can say that price discrimination exists when two “similar” products with the same marginal cost are sold by a firm at different prices.
Lithium titanate spinel (Li4Ti5O12, or LTS) has received an increasing level of attention as a nanopowder lithium-ion battery anode. Nanopowder electrodes may provide a higher energy density than currently available. Furthermore, the surface of the spinel nanopowder has been studied in air, under vacuum, and at varying temperatures with diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy revealing surface hydroxyls, carbonates and water. Applying a TiN thin film, a film that is both conducting and chemically inert to harmful reactions with the solvent/electrolyte, by atomic layer deposition (ALD) may enhance battery cycle life. A 200-layer film was deposited at 500 °C. We have characterized the influence of a TiN thin film on Li-ion battery performance. Total nitrogen content and transmission electron microscopy were used to verify the presence of nitrogen and formation of a thin film, respectively, on LTS. Modifying the powder with an ALD thin film coating produced an anode material with a voltage profile that demonstrated longer charge maintenance with shorter transient periods. It also held a more consistent charge capacity over varying discharge rates in coin cell testing than unmodified LTS.