To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Introduction: Macro-and Micro-Histories, Diasporas and the Influence of Eric Richards
Eric Richards was a master of blending broad conceptual insights with meticulously researched details about the particular experiences of individuals, families and communities. He had an enviable ability to comprehend and articulate complex themes cogently, straightforwardly and convincingly. His skill in juxtaposing impersonal economic forces with their personal consequences was demonstrated from his earliest publications on agricultural development, industrialization and demographic upheaval on the Sutherland estate in the Scottish Highlands, and executed with particular originality in his courageous and controversial biography of Patrick Sellar, probably the most notorious agent of clearance policies on that vast northern property. But Eric, an emigrant himself, was also a pre-eminent historian of the British diaspora, whose skill in undertaking both macro-history and intimate micro-studies was clearly evident in two seminal publications: Britannia's Children and particularly his final monograph, The Genesis of Modern Migration. In that magisterial book, which builds on and amplifies Britannia's Children, we find a seamless blend of theory and empirical data, as well as a well-proportioned balance of local, national and international perspectives. Theoretical and historiographical chapters are interspersed with practical illustrations of the outworking of theory, drawing on Eric's lifetime of research into migration and diaspora. The chronological and geographical sweep is wide, and his examples –from locations that include the Isle of Man, Swaledale in Yorkshire, Sussex, Shropshire, Kent, London and Cornwall, as well as London, Highland Scotland and the west of Wales and Ireland – provide the reader with a taste of the motives and experiences of migrants from many different backgrounds.
James Macandrew, whose life story is at the heart of this study, is – like the emigrants who populate the pages of Eric's books – representative of wider trends in the saga of diaspora, not least through the ups and downs of his transnational career, and his political and economic involvements after his arrival in New Zealand. I am indebted to Eric, who was my mentor and model for many years, for showing me the strengths, as well as the pitfalls, of biography as a lens through which to view the philosophy, process and practice of intercontinental migration over long timeframes and in multiple locations.
Labour emigrants in the nineteenth century had ever-increasing access to a global employment market. Many of those who left Great Britain looked beyond Europe, to the British Empire and the United States. They took advantage of improvements in transportation, and followed a wide variety of occupations. Decisions to emigrate were often shaped by their involvement in trade unions and were based on concerns about living standards and working conditions. This study considers a selection of globetrotting British settlers and sojourners who went to Canada, the United States and Australia between 1815 and the 1880s. The article analyses the historiography of labour migration; carries out an empirical study constructed around four pieces of analytical scaffolding; and closes by identifying recurring threads in the multi-hued tapestry of labour emigration, highlighting how concerns and traditions about recruitment, wages and working conditions, which had emerged in the nineteenth century, created legacies that persisted into the period after the First World War.
‘There is nothing more agreeable to picture and nothing more pathetic to behold’ wrote Robert Louis Stevenson in 1879, reflecting on his crossing of the Atlantic in the steps of his mistress and future wife, Fanny Osborne. His fellow passengers he described as ‘a company of the rejected; the drunken, the incompetent, the weak, the prodigal’. Yet, rather incongruously, he continued, ‘it must not be supposed that these people exhibited depression. The scene . . . was cheerful. Not a tear was shed on board the vessel. All were full of hope for the future, and showed an inclination to innocent gaiety.’1 Stevenson’s juxtaposition of image and reality was replicated in many other accounts of emigrant travel in the nineteenth century, and the relationship between expectations and experiences is a recurring theme in this analysis of the voyage, viewed primarily through the eyes of emigrants from Scotland to North America, Australia and New Zealand.
By the time Robert Louis Stevenson went to America, steam had eclipsed sail and transatlantic travelling times had been slashed. Nevertheless, a voyage in an emigrant ship was still a test of endurance rather than a luxury cruise, and did nothing to build up the passengers’ strength for the challenges of the new life that lay ahead. Modern perceptions of the privations of the emigrant voyage have been neutralised by generations of airline travel which, for all its discomforts, has certainly shrunk the globe, making it difficult to appreciate the tedium and the trials of overseas travel in the nineteenth century, particularly by sailing ship, but also in the faster, more reliable age of steam and rail.
A wealth of sources
Our lack of comprehension is certainly not attributable to deficient evidence, for the actual process of emigration was always a subject of great interest.It generated innumerable eye-witness accounts, since keeping a diary was, if nothing else, a strategy for coping with boredom during a long sea passage, at least for cabin passengers. Emigrants’ journals can be supplemented by captains’ logs, along with instructions and advice frequently offered in pamphlets and guidebooks and the evidence of official enquiries that exposed fraudulent practices or picked over the pieces of shipping disasters.
To characterize and enumerate central venous catheter (CVC)-related complications among children with chronic illnesses, and to reduce the complication rate through changes in CVC management and education.
A prospective obser vational study followed by an educational program and a nonrandomized inter ventional trial.
The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, a tertiary, pediatric facility.
268 children with Broviac, Hickman, or Infusaport catheters in place during 58,290 catheter days.
Development and implementation of protocols for cleaning insertion site and hub, use of nonocclusive dressings, and manipulation of access; formal staff and parental education about protocols.
CVC-related infections fell from 4.58/1,000 catheter-days preinter vention to 3.83 postintervention (risk ratio [RR], 0.20; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 0.89-1.622; P=.25); exit-site infections fell from 0.58 to 0.11 (CI95, 1.22-45.64; P=.02); rates among infants on the surgical service fell from 15.46 to 6.67 (RR, 2.31; CI95, 1.10-4.30; P=.02).
Education and changes in management protocols reduced the incidence of exit-site infections among all patients and reduced the overall infectious complication rate among the infants receiving parenteral nutrition on the surgical ser vice. Other interventions are needed to decrease further the infectious complications in these children
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.