The starfish Pharia pyramidatus is a tropical species of high ecological importance, mainly because of its role as generalist predator. Nevertheless, there are no studies about its reproduction. This study analysed the reproductive biology of P. pyramidatus based on monthly time-series samples from April 2008 to March 2009 at Isla Montosa in the Mexican tropical Pacific. The gonad index (GI), and pyloric caecum index (PCI) were determined and the results were corroborated by histological examination of the gonads. Pharia pyramidatus is a gonochoric asteroid and the ratio of males to females was not significantly different throughout the year. Gametogenesis showed high synchrony among males and females and five stages were recognized for both sexes. Spawning occurred from July to September. Maximum oocyte size was ~150 μm and mean fecundity was 7.3 ± 1.2 millions of oocytes per female. GI and PCI showed seasonal variations and an inverse relationship from May to August. Sea-bottom temperature and photoperiod showed a direct relationship with GI, and apparently constitute the proximate causes of the seasonal reproductive pattern observed in P. pyramidatus, while the highly seasonal rainfall and strong upwelling probably act as ultimate causes.