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To compare the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and mortality of patients with bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) versus ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) and to examine the differences in clinical characteristics and outcome between BSIs caused by isolates with CTX-M versus other ESBL genotypes
As part of the INCREMENT project, 33 tertiary hospitals in 12 countries retrospectively collected data on adult patients diagnosed with ESBL-EC BSI or ESBL-KP BSI between 2004 and 2013. Risk factors for ESBL-EC versus ESBL-KP BSI and for 30-day mortality were examined by bivariate analysis followed by multivariable logistic regression.
The study included 909 patients: 687 with ESBL-EC BSI and 222 with ESBL-KP BSI. ESBL genotype by polymerase chain reaction amplification of 286 isolates was available. ESBL-KP BSI was associated with intensive care unit admission, cardiovascular and neurological comorbidities, length of stay to bacteremia >14 days from admission, and a nonurinary source. Overall, 30-day mortality was significantly higher in patients with ESBL-KP BSI than ESBL-EC BSI (33.7% vs 17.4%; odds ratio, 1.64; P=.016). CTX-M was the most prevalent ESBL subtype identified (218 of 286 polymerase chain reaction-tested isolates, 76%). No differences in clinical characteristics or in mortality between CTX-M and non–CTX-M ESBLs were detected.
Clinical characteristics and risk of mortality differ significantly between ESBL-EC and ESBL-KP BSI. Therefore, all ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae should not be considered a homogeneous group. No differences in outcomes between genotypes were detected.
To evaluate the effect of an infection control program on the incidence of hospital-acquired infection (HAI) and associated mortality.
A 2,000-bed, university-affiliated hospital in Italy.
All patients admitted to the general intensive care unit (ICU) for more than 48 hours between January 2000 and December 2001.
The infection control team (ICT) collected data on the following from all patients: demographics, origin, diagnosis, severity score, underlying diseases, invasive procedures, HAI, isolated microorganisms, and antibiotic susceptibility.
Regular ICT surveillance meetings were held with ICU personnel. Criteria for invasive procedures, particularly central venous catheters (CVCs), were modified. ICU care was restricted to a team of specialist physicians and nurses and ICU antimicrobial therapy policies were modified.
Five hundred thirty-seven patients were included in the study (279 during 2000 and 258 in 2001). Between 2000 and 2001, CVC exposure (82.8% vs 71.3%; P < .05) and mechanical ventilation duration (11.2 vs 9.6 days) decreased. The HAI rate decreased from 28.7% in 2000 to 21.3% in 2001 (P < .05). The crude mortality rate decreased from 41.2% in 2000 to 32.9% in 2001 (P < .05). The most commonly isolated microorganisms were nonfermentative gram-negative organisms and staphylococci (particularly MRSA). Mortality was associated with infection (relative risk, 2.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.72-2.59; P <.05).
Routine surveillance for HAI, coupled with new measures to prevent infections and a revised policy for antimicrobial therapy, was associated with a reduction in ICU HAIs and mortality.
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