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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Target: Computationally identify the markers of ulcer severity and risk of amputation from datasets that include demographics data, clinical, laboratory data, and medical history over 6000 patients. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In this study we will use tables of demographics such as age, gender, and ethnicity/race. Inspired by previous research we’ll include wound age (duration in days), wound size, number of concurrent wounds of any etiology, evidence of bioburden/infection, Wagner grade, being non ambulatory, renal dialysis, renal transplant, peripheral vascular disease, and patient hospitalization. Another table will include laboratory vital signs to include physiological variables such as height, weight, body mass index, pulse rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and temperature. We’ll include also social data like smoking status, socio-economic status, housing condition. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our project aligns with previous efforts to identify high risk Diabetic Foot Ulcer individuals but also takes a different perspective by collecting and marking clinical data from a subset of patients (e.g., severity, Hispanic versus non-Hispanic) and computationally process these data to provide a tool that can identify DFU severity and high-risk patients. We will obtain samples from Hispanics and non-Hispanics because these two groups are likely to have significant differences in the progression of ulcer severity. The rationale is that by comparing these two groups, we will assess and study the factors that are differentially present. It is our expectation that the proposed project will provide an easy-to-use tool for DFU progression and risk of amputation and contribute to identify high-risk individuals. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Diabetes prevalence estimates in Bexar County, TX exceeds national estimates (15.5% vs. 11.3%) and diagnosed cases are higher among Hispanic adults (13.4%) compared to their non-Hispanic white counterparts (9.5%). Late identification of severe foot ulcers minimizes the likelihood of reducing amputation risk.
This paper presents an experimental study of the influence of heat losses on the onset of thermoacoustic instabilities in methane–air premixed flames propagating in a horizontal tube of diameter, $D = 10$ mm. Flames are ignited at the open end of the tube and propagate towards the closed end undergoing strong oscillations of different features owing to the interaction with acoustic waves. The frequency of oscillation and its axial location are controlled through the tube length $L$ and the intensity of heat losses. These parameters are respectively modified in the experiments by a moveable piston and a circulating thermal bath of water prescribing temperature conditions. Main experimental observations show that classical one-dimensional predictions of the oscillation frequency do not accurately describe the phenomena under non-adiabatic real scenarios. In addition to the experimental measurements, a quasi-one-dimensional analysis of the burnt gases is provided, which introduces the effect of heat losses at the wall of the tube on the interplay between the acoustic field and the reaction sheet. As a result, this analysis provides an improved description of the interaction and accurately predicts the excited flame-oscillation harmonics through the eigenvalues of the non-adiabatic acoustics model. Unlike the original one-dimensional analysis, the comparison between the flame oscillation frequency provided by the non-adiabatic extended theory and the frequencies measured in our experiments is in excellent agreement in the whole range of temperatures considered. This confirms the importance of heat losses in the modulation of the instabilities and the transition between different flame oscillation regimes.
Traditional housing markets have primarily ignored both the Bottom of the Pyramid (BOP) and the Middle of the Pyramid (MOP), as these groups are expelled out from commercial banking given they have insufficient money to formally build their homes, so they remain as vulnerable people. This housing shortage is of particular importance in developing countries where public intervention is not efficient to solve this social problem. In this chapter, and applied to the Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) nations, we show how the public–private initiatives based on innovation can help to solve this shortage of quality housing. We conclude that managers located in LAC countries have an active role in identifying social needs to satisfy them by applying innovative processes focused on reducing poverty gaps in housing from private initiatives. These creative procedures allow social entrepreneurs to adopt flexible and adjustable models to the variety of needs emerged in the different segments of the low-income market, and we show it in various cases for some LAC countries.
Darwin's frogs Rhinoderma darwinii and Rhinoderma rufum are the only known species of amphibians in which males brood their offspring in their vocal sacs. We propose these frogs as flagship species for the conservation of the Austral temperate forests of Chile and Argentina. This recommendation forms part of the vision of the Binational Conservation Strategy for Darwin's Frogs, which was launched in 2018. The strategy is a conservation initiative led by the IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group, which in 2017 convened 30 governmental, non-profit and private organizations from Chile, Argentina and elsewhere. Darwin's frogs are iconic examples of the global amphibian conservation crisis: R. rufum is categorized as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) on the IUCN Red List, and R. darwinii as Endangered. Here we articulate the conservation planning process that led to the development of the conservation strategy for these species and present its main findings and recommendations. Using an evidence-based approach, the Binational Conservation Strategy for Darwin's Frogs contains a comprehensive status review of Rhinoderma spp., including critical threat analyses, and proposes 39 prioritized conservation actions. Its goal is that by 2028, key information gaps on Rhinoderma spp. will be filled, the main threats to these species will be reduced, and financial, legal and societal support will have been achieved. The strategy is a multi-disciplinary, transnational endeavour aimed at ensuring the long-term viability of these unique frogs and their particular habitat.
The low-temperature synthesis of bricks prepared from high-siliceous clays by the method of plastic molding of blanks was used. For the preparation of brick blanks, binary and ternary mixtures of high-siliceous clays, black sand, and bottle glass cullet were used. Gray-black low-porosity and high-porosity ceramics was obtained by sintering under conditions of oxygen deficiency. It has been established that to initiate plastic in mixtures containing high-siliceous clay, it is necessary to add montmorillonite/bentonite additives, carry out low-temperature sintering, and introduce low-melting glass additives with a melting point ranging from 750 to 800 °C. The performed investigations have shown that the sintering of mixtures with a total content of iron oxide of about 5 wt% under reducing conditions at Tsint. = 800°C for 8 h leads to the formation of glass ceramics consisting of quartz, feldspars, and a phase. The main sources of the appearance of a dark color is the formation of [Fe3+O4]4- and [Fe3+O6]9- anions in the composition of the glass phase and feldspars. By changing the contents of clay, sand, and glass in sintering, it is possible to obtain two types of ceramic materials: (a) in the form of building bricks and (b) in the form of porous fillers.
CHD is becoming an increasing priority worldwide, as it is one of the main causes of death in low- and middle-income countries lately. This study aims to evaluate the association between beverage consumption patterns and the risk of CHD among Mexican adult population. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from 6640 adults participating in the Health Workers’ Cohort Study. Factor analysis was performed to identify beverage patterns using sex-specific Framingham prediction algorithms to estimate CHD risk. The prevalence of moderate to high CHD risk was 17·8 %. We identified four major beverage consumption patterns, which were categorised as alcohol, coffee/tea, soft drinks and low-fat milk. We observed a lower risk of CHD (OR=0·61; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·80; and OR=0·58; 95 % CI 0·43, 0·79, respectively) among participants in the upper quintile of alcohol or low-fat milk consumption compared with those in the bottom quintile. In contrast, a higher consumption of soft drinks was positively associated with CHD risk (OR=1·64; 95 % CI 1·21, 2·20) when compared with other extreme quintiles. Finally, coffee/tea consumption was not significantly associated with CHD risk. Our findings suggest that a beverage pattern characterised by a higher intake of sugar-sweetened beverages may be associated with an increased risk of CHD among the Mexican adult population, whereas patterns of moderate alcohol intake and low-fat milk may be associated with a reduced risk.
To assess vitamin D dietary sources, intake and 25-hydroxyvitamin D status and their association with individual and sociodemographic characteristics in Mexican children.
Data obtained from 2695 children aged 1–11 years from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (2012) were analysed. Diet was assessed by a 141-item FFQ. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D was measured by a chemiluminescent assay.
Mean vitamin D intake was 3·38 (se 0·09) µg/d (135·2 (se 3·6) IU/d) among pre-school children and 2·85 (se 0·06) µg/d (114·0 (se 2·4) IU/d) in school-age children. Milk accounted for 64·4 % of vitamin D intake in pre-school children and 54·7 % in school-age children. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<50 nmol/l) was 25·9 % in pre-schoolers and 36·6 % in school-age children. Overweight/obese school-age children had a higher risk of vitamin D deficiency compared with normal-weight children (OR=2·23; 95 % CI 1·36, 3·66; P<0·05).
Vitamin D intakes are low in Mexican children, and milk is the main source of the vitamin. Vitamin D deficiency is common and associated with overweight in school-age children.
Evidence from different directions, including observational and experimental studies, points to a role of vitamin D status in low-intensity chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It has been recognised that insulin resistance and low-intensity chronic inflammation are risk factors for T2DM. Thus, vitamin D status can be implicated in the aetiology of TD2M. It is suggested that the relationship between vitamin D and low-intensity chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in T2DM can be mediated in part by the immune-modulating properties of the active form of vitamin D (1-α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; 1,25(OH)2D3), which is able to down regulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines – particularly TNF-α, and IL-6. However, an association between vitamin D status and these features, which is independent of BMI, has been also reported. Non-calcaemic effects of vitamin
D can be associated with health outcomes other than those traditionally attributed to the vitamin.
The presence of cacao has been discovered in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Cacao in this region has been mentioned since Prehispanic times by diverse chroniclers and investigators. Nonetheless, until the present, there did not exist concrete evidence of the existence of cacao in this area. Apparently, the climate and soil of Yucatan are not adequate for the natural growth of this species, which requires great humidity throughout the year and deep soils. Cacao was found in three sinkholes (k'o'op) to the south of Valladolid. The trees found are of a rare form of cacao only known in the Lacandon region in Chiapas: Theobroma cacao L. subspecies cacao forma lacandonica Cuatrecasas. A discussion of the importance of this discovery from the perspectives of biology, ecology, and history is presented. This discovery reinforces the importance of the present-day flora for understanding the management of vegetation in the past.
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