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Decision-making (DM) is a component of executive functioning. DM is essential to make proper decisions regarding important life and health issues. DM can be impaired in cognitive disorders among older adults, but current literature is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the DM profile in participants with and without cognitive impairment.
Cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study on cognitive aging.
143 older adults.
University-based memory clinic.
Patients comprised three groups after inclusion and exclusion criteria: healthy controls (n=29), mild cognitive impairment (n=81) and dementia (n=33). Participants were evaluated using an extensive neuropsychological protocol. DM profile was evaluated by the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between age, sex, educational level, estimated intelligence quotient (IQ), cognitive disorders, depressive or anxiety symptoms, and the DM profiles.
The most prevalent DM profile was the vigilant type, having a prevalence of 64.3%. The vigilant profile also predominated in all three groups. The multinomial logistic regression showed that the avoidance profile (i.e. buck-passing) was associated with a greater presence of dementia (p=0.046) and depressive symptoms (p=0.024), but with less anxious symptoms (p=0.047). The procrastination profile was also associated with depressive symptoms (p=0.048). Finally, the hypervigilant profile was associated with a lower pre-morbid IQ (p=0.007).
Older adults with cognitive impairment tended to make more unfavorable choices and have a more dysfunctional DM profile compared to healthy elders.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between depression and SSRI monotherapy and frailty both baseline and prospectively in older adults.
Prospective cohort study, 12-month follow-up.
Geriatric outpatient clinic in São Paulo, Brazil.
A total of 811 elderly adults aged 60 or older.
Depression was diagnosed as follows: (1) a diagnosis of major depression disorder (MDD) according to DSM-5; or (2) an incomplete diagnosis of MDD, referred to as minor or subsyndromic depression, plus Geriatric Depression Scale 15-itens ≥ 6 points, and social or functional impairment secondary to depressive symptoms and observed by relatives. Frailty evaluation was performed through the FRAIL questionnaire, which is a self-rated scale. Trained investigators blinded to the baseline assessment conducted telephone calls to evaluate frailty after 12-month follow-up. The association between depression and the use of SSRI with frailty was estimated through a generalized estimating equation adjusted for age, gender, total drugs, and number of comorbidities.
Depression with SSRI use was associated with frailty at baseline (OR 2.82, 95% CI = 1.69–4.69) and after 12 months (OR 2.75, 95% CI = 1.84–4.11). Additionally, depression with SSRI monotherapy was also associated with FRAIL subdomains Physical Performance (OR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.29–3.07) and Health Status (OR 4.64, 95% CI = 2.11–10.21). SSRI use, without significant depressive symptoms, was associated with subdomain Health Status (OR 1.52, 95% CI = 1.04–2.23).
It appears that depression with SSRI is associated to frailty, and this association cannot be explained only by antidepressant use.
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