A hammer mill removed most of the lemmas, paleas, and pericarps from cheat florets. Typically, the cuticular layer of the testa was the only remaining intact layer, and damage to the embryos and endosperm was severe. A roller mill disrupted tissue organization of lemmas, paleas, and outer layers of the caryopses primarily at the cuts. Large gaps between the aleurone layer and testa, between testa and pericarp, and between the scutellum and endosperm were created. In the field, germination of mill-damaged florets was reduced, and florets exhibited progressive degradation the longer they were buried. Nematodes and fungi penetrated the cuticular layer of mill-damaged seed. Attaching a hammer mill or a roller mill to a grain combine to treat cheat seed before it is returned to the field could provide a novel method of cheat control.