Outer space would appear to be a natural resource whose use is characterized by open access and a minimum of congestion externalities. However, over the past two decades, there has been an increase in demand for the limited number of “orbital slots” for communications satellites, and over-crowding has become a problem in space. Recent studies commissioned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Gamble et al., 1979 and Gabriszeski et al., 1979) concluded that demand for communications satellite circuits will increase many-fold between 1982 and the end of this century. This projected increase in demand is the result of the growing number of non-military uses for satellite activities such as weather and climate data collection and remote-sensing of the earth's resources. Another is simply the growing number of nations with interests and capabilities in advanced space technology. To illustrate, membership in the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, (Intelsat), the organization responsible for coordinating global telephone and television relays, has grown from 14 nations in 1964 to 101 in 1980.