A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the DRD3 gene (rs167771) was recently associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Different polymorphisms of rs167771 corresponded to varying degrees of stereotyped behaviour. As DRD3 receptors are relatively overexpressed in the striatum, we investigated whether striatal volume was related to these polymorphisms in autism. We assessed volumes of caudate nucleus and putamen in 86 participants with ASD (mean age 15.3 years). MANCOVA showed an association between alleles of the rs167771 SNP and the volume of striatal structures. Furthermore, greater caudate nucleus volume correlated with stereotyped behaviour. These findings support a relationship between DRD3 gene SNPs, striatum and stereotyped behaviour in ASD.