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To present our experience with the endovascular management of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas with direct cortical venous drainage by trans-arterial embolisation using Onyx.
Materials & Methods:
Between January 2004 and April 2008, 12 consecutive high grade intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (Cognard type III (eight patients) or IV (three patients)) were treated by trans-arterial embolisation with Onyx. The majority of cases were treated by Onyx embolisation alone. One case had additional embolisation with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate at the same session. Imaging follow-up was obtained in all but one patient (mean 3.6 months).
Nine patients had a technical success at the end of the embolisation procedure with complete angiographic exclusion of the fistula. Two patients had a small residual fistula at the end of embolisation, one of which had residual mild cortical venous drainage. Both were stable at follow-up angiography. One patient had a residual fistula supplied by the ophthalmic artery, which was thought to be unsafe to embolise and was sent for surgery, which was curative. In one patient the microcatheter ruptured, with a fragment of the distal microcatheter left in the occipital artery. No clinical complications were observed in this series at clinical follow-up (mean 3.3 months). Two patients were noted to have significant radiation dose.
Endovascular management of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas with direct venous cortical drainage by trans-arterial Onyx embolisation is a safe and effective treatment according to our experience. Fluoroscopy times and radiation dose may be a concern.
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