We report on the fabrication and performances of the most efficient Si-based light sources. The devices consist of MOS structures with erbium (Er) implanted in the thin gate oxide. The devices exhibit strong 1.54 μm electroluminescence at 300K with a 10% external quantum efficiency, comparable to that of standard light emitting diodes using III-V semiconductors. Emission at different wavelenghts has been achieved incorporating different rare earths (Ce, Tb, Yb, Pr) in the gate dielectric. The external quantum efficiency depends on the rare earth ions incorporated and ranges from 10% (for an Tb doped MOS) to 0.1% (for an Yb doped MOS). RE excitation is caused by hot electrons impact and oxide wearout limits the reliability of the devices. Much more stable light emitting MOS devices have been fabricated using Er-doped SRO (Silicon Rich Oxide) films as gate dielectric. These devices show a high stability, with an external quantum efficiency reduced to 0.2%. In these devices Er pumping occurs part by hot electrons and part by energy transfer from the Si nanostructures to the rare earth ions, depending by Si excess in the film. Si/SiO2 Fabry-Perot microcavities have been fabricated to enhance the external quantum emission along the cavity axis and the spectral purity of emission from the films that are used as active media to realize a Si based RCLED (resonant cavity light emitting diode). These structures are realized by chemical vapour deposition on a silicon substrate. The microcavities are tuned at different wavelengths: 540nm, 980nm and 1540nm (characteristic emission wavelengths respectively for Tb, Yb and Er). The reflectivity of the microcavities is of 97% and the quality factor ranges from 60 (for the cavity tuned at 980nm) to 95 (for the cavities tuned at 540nm and 1540nm).