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Insight into the role of energy balance-related behaviours (EBRB) is of great importance when it comes to prevention of weight gain and design of interventions tailored to target these behaviours.
First, the present study examines the longitudinal association of four EBRB in Norwegian adolescents. Second, it aims to examine whether clusters of EBRB are cross-sectionally associated with being overweight.
The present study is part of the ‘Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks’ project. The study sample consists of twenty control schools in two Norwegian counties.
Survey questionnaires were completed by 884 pupils with an average age at baseline, September 2001, of 11·8 years. In the follow-up surveys in May 2002 and May 2005, a total of 809 and 724 adolescents participated, respectively. Four EBRB were measured: habitual fruit and vegetable intake, snacking and soda consumption, television and computer use and physical activity.
Results of the associations between EBRB were similar for boys and girls. The odds, ranging from 1·14 to 12·06, were mostly significant. One out of four clusters, the unhealthy cluster, was significantly and cross-sectionally associated with overweight and obesity.
Longitudinal associations of EBRB show that it is important to start early with interventions that aim to prevent unhealthy behaviours becoming habitual. These behaviours should be targeted at the same time as they tend to co-occur. More research, preferably longitudinal and more objective, is needed to investigate associations between health behaviours and body weight among adolescents.
To assess the prevalence of normal weight, overweight and obesity among 10–18-year-old Czech Republic adolescents and to assess the association between energy balance-related behaviours and overweight/obesity.
Cross-sectional data from ‘The 6th Nation-wide Anthropological Survey of Children and Adolescents 2001 Czech Republic’ have been used.
Height and weight were objectively measured. Data on adolescents’ behaviours were assessed with self-reported questionnaires. Background variables were assessed by means of a parental questionnaire. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess behavioural risk factors of being overweight/obese.
Data on 31 228 adolescents aged 10–18 years were included in the present study.
The highest prevalence of being overweight or obese was found among boys and younger adolescents. Boys were more physically active, watched more television (TV) and used the computer more often than did girls. Being on a diet and skipping meals were positively associated with being overweight/obese, independent of gender. In boys (10–14 years old), inverse associations with being overweight/obese were found when being more physically active. Monitoring weight showed inverse relations with being overweight/obese in 15–18-year-old girls. Watching TV more than 7 h a week was positively associated with being overweight/obese in 15–18-year-old girls, and was found to be negatively associated in boys of the same age group.
These behaviours should be targeted when preventing overweight and obesity among Czech Republic adolescents. Studies using better measures of energy balance-related behaviours are needed.
To review recent data on objectively measured overweight/obesity in national representative samples of European adolescents (aged 10–18 years), as well as availability of studies assessing trends in overweight/obesity in this target group. Attention was paid to the ability of the data to describe the obesity epidemic, especially in sociodemographic subgroups.
Data on prevalence and trends in overweight/obesity among adolescents in the twenty-seven European Community member states, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland, available as scientific publications as well as reports or unpublished data by the end of 2009, were retrieved. Reports on the most recent objectively measured data from national representative samples were selected and described with regard to the years of data collection, sample sizes, response rates, age ranges included, trends by age, type of measures of overweight/obesity, sociodemographic variables and the sources of information.
Objectively measured data on national representative samples were identified for only half of the countries, and the trend studies were mainly conducted applying subnational samples. Most studies used the criteria from the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) to define overweight/obesity, but the age ranges studied and the years of data collection varied, and information on sample sizes and response rates were often not presented. Data on trends of overweight/obesity over time are increasing, and the most recent studies indicate that the prevalence rate of overweight/obesity has stabilized. Few studies reported data by sociodemographic subgroups other than gender and age.
Objectively measured data on national representative samples of adolescents appear scattered, and there is a large heterogeneity with respect to the quality and comparability of available data. Increasing use of the IOTF criteria for overweight/obesity contributes to improved comparability across studies. Data by sociodemographic subgroups, and in particular by socio-economic status, are scarce.
To explore direct associations between home and school availability of fruit and fruit intake, and the mediating role of attitude towards fruit, liking, perceived barriers and self-efficacy.
Primary schools in nine European countries.
Within the Pro Children study, data were collected on perceived home and school availability of fruit, psychosocial factors related to fruit intake and its frequency among 13 305 11-year-old schoolchildren.
Significant overall associations were found between child-reported home availability of fruit and fruit intake in all countries and in the total sample. School availability of fruit was associated with fruit intake in the pooled sample and in country-specific analyses in Sweden and the Netherlands. Liking (13·2–49·4 %) and self-efficacy (14·0–25·1 %) were the strongest mediators in the home availability–fruit intake relationship, but there was also a direct association between home availability and fruit intake, except in Spain and the Netherlands. Mediating pathways of the school availability–fruit intake relationship could only be assessed for Norway, Sweden and the total sample. Attitude was a significant mediator in Norway (80·4 %) and in Sweden (25·3 %), while in the total sample also liking (38·7 %) and self-efficacy (23·0 %) were identified as significant mediators.
The association between home availability of fruit and fruit intake is at least partly mediated by personal factors such as liking and self-efficacy indicates that fruit intake is not a complete automatic or unconscious behaviour.
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