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Objective: Considering that mitochondria may be drug targets and some characteristics of drug–mitochondria interactions may still be misjudged because of the difficulty in foreseeing and understanding all possible implications of the complex pathophysiology of mitochondria, our study aimed to investigate the effect of escitalopram on the activity of enzymes of mitochondrial energy metabolism.
Methods: Animals received daily administration of escitalopram dissolved in saline [10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (IP)] at 1.0 ml/kg volume for 14 days. Control rats received an equivalent volume of saline, 1.0 ml/kg (IP), for the same treatment period. Twelve hours after last injection, rats were killed by decapitation and brain areas were rapidly isolated. The samples were homogenised and the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, some enzymes of Krebs cycle (citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase) and creatine kinase were measured.
Results: We verified that chronic administration of escitalopram decreased the activities of complexes I and II–III in cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum and posterior cortex whereas prefrontal cortex was not affected. Complex II activity was decreased only in striatum without affecting prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and posterior cortex. However, chronic administration of escitalopram did not affect complex IV and enzymes of Krebs cycle activities as well as creatine kinase.
Conclusion: In this study we showed a decrease in the activities of complexes I and II–III in most of the brain structures analysed and complex II activity was decreased only in striatum. However, it remains to be determined if mitochondrial dysfunction is rather a causal or a consequential event of abnormal signalling.
Objectives: Based on the hypothesis that energy impairment may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression, we evaluated the activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II, II-III, IV and creatine kinase (CK) in the brain of rats submitted to chronic administration of bupropion.
Methods: Animals received daily administration of bupropion dissolved in saline (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) at 1.0 ml/kg body weight. The rats received injections once a day for 14 days; control rats received an equivalent volume of saline. Twelve hours after the last administration, the rats were killed by decapitation and brain was rapidly removed and kept on an ice plate. The activities of the enzymes were measured in different brain areas.
Results: We observed that the activities of citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase, mithocondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II-III and IV and CK were not altered after chronic administration of bupropion. However, SDH activity was increased in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum. In the hippocampus, cerebellum and striatum the activity of complex II was increased after chronic administration of bupropion.
Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that bupropion increased some enzymes of brain energy metabolism. These findings are in accordance with other studies which showed that some antidepressants may improve energy metabolism. The present results reinforce the hypothesis that antidepressants modulate brain energy metabolism.
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