Pine wilt disease, caused by the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) Nickle, is originating severe infections in pine trees. The disease is detected when external symptoms appear (e.g. needle chlorosis), but trees could remain asymptomatic for long periods and serve as a long-term host. The primary goal of this study was to assess the effect of inoculation with an avirulent isolate of B. xylophilus (C14-5) on different Pinus spp. seedlings (P. sylvestris, P. nigra, P. pinea and P. pinaster). At the same time, seedlings were also inoculated with a virulent strain, HF, in order to compare the phenotypic and genomic results of the two types of inoculations. The effect of inoculation was determined in terms of expression of various Pinus genes potentially involved in the response to the disease.The results suggest that P. pinea and P. nigra are more resistant to infection by the nematode than P. sylvestris and P. pinaster. The phenotypic and genetic differences were more marked among P. pinea and P. pinaster.