To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Food environments may be contributing to the rapid increase in obesity occurring in most Latin American (LA) countries. The present study reviews literature from LA that (i) describes the food environment and policies targeting the food environment (FEP); and (ii) analytic studies that investigate associations between the FEP and dietary behaviours, overweight/obesity and obesity related chronic diseases. We focus on six dimensions of the FEP: food retail, provision, labelling, marketing, price and composition.
Systematic literature review. Three databases (Web of Science, SciELO, LILACS) were searched, from 1 January 1999 up to July 2017. Two authors independently selected the studies. A narrative synthesis was used to summarize, integrate and interpret findings.
Studies conducted in LA countries.
The search yielded 2695 articles of which eighty-four met inclusion criteria.
Most studies were descriptive and came from Brazil (61 %), followed by Mexico (18 %) and Guatemala (6 %). Studies were focused primarily on retail/provision (n 27), marketing (n 16) and labelling (n 15). Consistent associations between availability of fruit and vegetable markets and higher consumption of fruits and vegetables were found in cross-sectional studies. Health claims in food packaging were prevalent and mostly misleading. There was widespread use of marketing strategies for unhealthy foods aimed at children. Food prices were lower for processed relative to fresh foods. Some studies documented high sodium in industrially processed foods.
Gaps in knowledge remain regarding policy evaluations, longitudinal food retail studies, impacts of food price on diet and effects of digital marketing on diet/health.
To examine the associations of individual and food environmental factors with fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake in a city in a low-to-middle-income country (LMIC).
Representative sample of the Brazilian Primary Care service known as the Health Academy Program (HAP) in Belo Horizonte, a Brazilian city.
Using a conceptual model as a guide, individual and food environment data were obtained through: (i) face-to-face interviews with participants aged 20 years or older; and (ii) F&V food store audits. A broad set of individual, household, and community and consumer nutrition environment variables was investigated. Multilevel linear regression was used to quantify area-level variations in F&V intake and to estimate associations with the factors.
Eighteen HAP centres were selected and 2944 participants and 336 food stores were included. F&V intake varied between contexts, being higher in areas with better socio-economic conditions and food store quality, such as specialised F&V markets. Individual-level factors, including age, income, food insecurity, stage of change, self-efficacy and decisional balance, were significantly associated with F&V intake. After controlling for individual-level characteristics, greater F&V intake was also associated with higher quality of food stores.
In one of the first studies to comprehensively assess the food environment in an LMIC, individual-level factors accounted for the largest variation in F&V intake; however, the food environment was also important, because area-level variables explained 10·5 % of the F&V intake variation. The consumer nutrition environment was more predictive of healthy eating than was the community nutrition environment. The findings suggest new possibilities for interventions.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.