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To examine the association between egg consumption and measures of insulin sensitivity (SI), acute insulin response (AIR) and metabolic clearance rate of insulin (MCRI).
Egg consumption, categorized as <1/week, 1 to <3/week, 3 to <5/week and ≥5/week, was measured using a validated FFQ. SI, AIR and MCRI were determined from frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests.
Non-diabetic participants (n 949) in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS).
Egg consumption was inversely associated with SI and MCRI, and positively associated with fasting insulin in regression models adjusted for demographic, socio-economic, lifestyle and dietary factors (β = −0·22, 95 % CI −0·38, −0·045, P = 0·05 for SI; β = −0·20, 95 % CI −0·34, −0·055, P = 0·005 for MCRI; β = 0·35, 95 % CI 0·15, 0·54, P = 0·002 for fasting insulin; all P values for linear trend). These associations remained significant after additionally adjusting for energy intake or dietary saturated fat, although dietary cholesterol and BMI attenuated these associations to non-significance. Egg consumption was not associated with AIR.
Dietary cholesterol and BMI appear to mediate the inverse association of egg consumption with insulin sensitivity and clearance. Alternatively, egg consumption may be clustered with other dietary behaviours which increase BMI, hence negatively impacting on insulin sensitivity and clearance.
While adult populations have been well described in terms of nutritional status, such as the concentration of nutrient biomarkers, little work has been done in healthy paediatric populations.
The primary objective of this analysis was to explore the determinants of plasma micronutrients in a group of healthy infants and children.
The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) has enrolled 1433 newborns at increased risk for type 1 diabetes in Denver, Colorado. A representative random sample of 257 children from the DAISY cohort between the ages of 9 months and 8 years with a total of 815 clinic visits over time was used in this analysis. Annual dietary intake was assessed over time with Willett food-frequency questionnaires that were validated in this population. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was assessed using a validated survey. Plasma samples were tested for vitamins, carotenoids and total lipids. Predictors of plasma micronutrients were evaluated using mixed models for longitudinal data, while adjusting for age, human leukocyte antigen genotype, type 1 diabetes family history and other potential confounders and covariates.
Increased micronutrient intake was associated with increased levels of their respective plasma nutrient, with the exception of γ-tocopherol. Independent of dietary intake, levels of α- and β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin were significantly lower, and γ-tocopherol was significantly higher, in children who were exposed to ETS.
Dietary intake predicts plasma micronutrient levels. Exposure to ETS potentially could have negative health effects in this young population.
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