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To compare temporal trends, over a 20-year period, in dietary habits between a county (Västerbotten) with a CVD prevention programme and a county (Norrbotten) without such a programme.
Cross-sectional data from the Northern Sweden MONICA study (survey period 1994, 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2014). Dietary habits were assessed by a semi-quantitative FFQ.
Counties of Norrbotten and Västerbotten, Northern Sweden.
Five thousand four hundred Swedish adults (mean age 56·9 years; 51·2 % women) from Västerbotten (47 %) and Norrbotten (53 %).
No differences in temporal trend for estimated percentage of energy intake from total carbohydrates, total fat, total protein and alcohol were observed between the counties (Pfor interaction ≥ 0·33). There were no between-county difference in temporal trends for overall diet quality (assessed by the Healthy Diet Score; Pfor interaction = 0·36). Nor were there any between-county differences for the intake of whole grain products, fruits, vegetables, fish, sweetened beverages or fried potatoes (Pfor interaction ≥ 0·09). Consumption of meat (Pfor interaction = 0·05) increased to a greater extent in Norrbotten from 2009 and onwards, mainly in men (sex-specific analyses, Pfor interaction = 0·04). Men in Västerbotten decreased their intake of sweets to a greater extent than men in Norrbotten (Pfor interaction < 0·01).
Over a 20-year period in northern Sweden, only small differences in dietary habits were observed in favour of a county with a CVD prevention programme compared with a county without such a programme.
To examine timing of eating across ten European countries.
Cross-sectional analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study using standardized 24 h diet recalls collected during 1995–2000. Eleven predefined food consumption occasions were assessed during the recall interview. We present time of consumption of meals and snacks as well as the later:earlier energy intake ratio, with earlier and later intakes defined as 06.00–14.00 and 15.00–24.00 hours, respectively. Type III tests were used to examine associations of sociodemographic, lifestyle and health variables with timing of energy intake.
Ten Western European countries.
In total, 22 985 women and 13 035 men aged 35–74 years (n 36 020).
A south–north gradient was observed for timing of eating, with later consumption of meals and snacks in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries. However, the energy load was reversed, with the later:earlier energy intake ratio ranging from 0·68 (France) to 1·39 (Norway) among women, and from 0·71 (Greece) to 1·35 (the Netherlands) among men. Among women, country, age, education, marital status, smoking, day of recall and season were all independently associated with timing of energy intake (all P<0·05). Among men, the corresponding variables were country, age, education, smoking, physical activity, BMI and day of recall (all P<0·05).
We found pronounced differences in timing of eating across Europe, with later meal timetables but greater energy load earlier during the day in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries.
Certain factors such as age and gender seem to affect the risk of developing post-concussion syndrome (PCS). We assessed the interactions between age, gender, concussion history and mechanism of injury in PCS patients so that a better understanding could guide the development of targeted prevention strategies.
Demographic data including age, gender, concussion mechanism of injury and concussion history were collected from (1) a prospective study evaluating PCS biomarkers and (2) a retrospective chart review of PCS patients. A total of 437 PCS patients who were assessed at the Canadian Concussion Centre or Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, ON, were included.
Overall, there were more men with PCS; however, a greater percentage of women had PCS after a single concussion. The results showed that age, gender and concussion history are conditionally dependent on the mechanism of injury, and independent of one another. The relative frequency of having PCS was greater in the following instances: (1) being a woman and having had concussion from a fall or motor vehicle collision (MVC), (2) being older and having had concussion from a fall or MVC or (3) having a single concussion with cause being MVC or fall.
In patients with PCS, age and gender interact with the mechanism of injury to influence the risk of concussion. Targeted prevention strategies may be essential to prevent injuries leading to PCS.
The objective was to investigate whether irregular eating of meals in adolescence predicts the metabolic syndrome and its components in adulthood, and if any specific meal is of particular importance.
Prospective cohort study with 27 years of follow-up. Information on meals (breakfast, school lunch and dinner with family), lifestyle (alcohol consumption, smoking habits, physical activity, consumption of sweets and pastries) at age 16 years was assessed from questionnaires, and presence or not of the metabolic syndrome and its components were defined at age 43 years in 889 participants (82·1 % of total cohort). Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals.
The Northern Swedish Cohort; all school-leavers of the 9th grade in the town Luleå in 1981.
Adolescents (age 16 years).
Irregular eating of meals at age 16 years was associated with higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years (OR=1·74; 95 % CI 1·12, 2·71), but this was explained by concurrent unhealthy lifestyle at age 16 years. Poor breakfast at age 16 years was the only meal associated with the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years, independent of other meals, BMI (kg/m2) and lifestyle at age 16 years (OR=1·67; 95 % CI 1·00, 2·80).
Irregular eating of meals in adolescence predicted the metabolic syndrome in adulthood, but not independently of BMI and lifestyle in adolescence. Poor breakfast in adolescence was the only specific meal associated with future metabolic syndrome, even after adjustments. Breakfast eating should be encouraged in adolescence.
To analyse whether poor breakfast habits in adolescence predict the metabolic syndrome and its components in adulthood. Previous studies suggest that regular breakfast consumption improves metabolic parameters.
Prospective. Breakfast habits and other lifestyle variables at age 16 years were assessed from questionnaires. Poor breakfast habits were defined as skipping breakfast or only drinking or eating something sweet. At age 43 years, the effective sample consisted of 889 participants defined as having the metabolic syndrome or not, using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals.
The Northern Swedish Cohort, a longitudinal population-based cohort with 27-year follow-up.
Adolescents (age 16 years).
Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years was 27·0 %. Of the participants, 9·9 % were classified with poor breakfast habits at age 16 years. Adjusted odds for the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years was OR = 1·68 (95 % CI 1·01, 2·78) for those with poor breakfast habits at age 16 years compared with breakfast eaters. Looking at the metabolic syndrome components, poor breakfast habits at age 16 years were associated with central obesity (OR = 1·71; 95 % CI 1·00, 2·92) and high fasting glucose (OR = 1·75; 95 % CI 1·01, 3·02) at age 43 years, even after multivariate adjustments.
Poor breakfast habits in adolescence predicted the metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Of the metabolic syndrome components, poor breakfast habits in adolescence predicted central obesity and high fasting glucose in adulthood. Further research is needed to fully understand the relationship between early breakfast habits and adult metabolic syndrome.
To evaluate the validity of the Northern Sweden eighty-four-item FFQ to estimate intake of fatty acids relative to 24 h diet recalls (24-HDR) and fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes.
Participants, randomly recruited from the population-based Västerbotten Intervention Project, answered the eighty-four-item FFQ. During the following year each participant carried out ten 24-HDR. Intake of fatty acids measured by the FFQ was compared with intake by the 24-HDR and fatty acid levels in erythrocytes.
The county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden.
Ninety-six men and ninety-nine women.
Spearman correlation coefficients (rs) between intakes of the fatty acids 14 : 0, 15 : 0, 16 : 0, 17 : 0, 18 : 2n-6, 18 : 3n-3, 20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3 estimated by the FFQ and the 24-HDR were all significant and ranged from 0·29 (22 : 6n-3 in men and women) to 0·60 (16 : 0 in men), whereas significant correlations between FFQ-estimated intake and erythrocyte membrane content were only seen for milk fatty acids 14 : 0, 15 : 0 and 17 : 0 (rs = 0·23–0·34) and fish fatty acids 20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3 (rs = 0·42–0·51).
The Northern Sweden eighty-four-item FFQ gives a satisfactory estimate of the intake of fish fatty acids (20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3) and milk fatty acids (15 : 0 and 17 : 0), whereas its validity for fatty acids 18 : 2n-6 and 18 : 3n-3, derived mainly from vegetable oils, cannot be shown.
Results of previous studies on fish intake and stroke risk have been inconclusive. Different stroke types have often not been separated. Our aim was to elucidate whether intake of fish, Hg or the sum of proportions of fatty acids EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) influence the risk of haemorrhagic or ischaemic stroke. Within a population-based cohort from a community intervention programme, 369 stroke cases and 738 matched controls were identified and included in the present nested case–control study. Information on fish intake had been recorded at recruitment, i.e. before diagnosis. Hg levels were determined in erythrocyte membranes, also collected at recruitment, and the relative content of fatty acids was measured in erythrocyte membranes or plasma phospholipids. The results showed that in women there was a non-significant decrease in stroke risk with increasing fish intake (OR 0·90 (95 % CI 0·73, 1·11) per meal per week). The risk in women differed significantly (P = 0·03) from that in men, in whom the OR for stroke rose with increasing fish intake (OR 1·24 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·51) per meal per week). The corresponding risk in men for Hg was 0·99 (95 % CI 0·93, 1·06), and for the sum of proportions of EPA and DHA 1·08 (95 % CI 0·92, 1·28). We conclude that the relationship between stroke risk and fish intake seems to be different in men and women. Increased levels of EPA and DHA do not decrease the risk for stroke and there is no association between stroke risk and Hg at these low levels.
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