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To examine if fetal exposure to a small dosage of extra vitamin D from food fortification was associated with a decrease in the risk of pre-eclampsia later in life.
Cancellation of the mandatory vitamin D fortification of margarine in 1985 created a societal experiment, with entire adjacent birth cohorts exposed or unexposed to extra vitamin D during fetal development. The Danish national medical health registries allowed the identification of pre-eclampsia cases later in life among all exposed and unexposed female individuals.
Women born between June 1983 and August 1988, who gave birth to their first child at age 14·5–27·5 years (n 32 621).
OR (95 % CI) for pre-eclampsia among women exposed v. unexposed to extra vitamin D from fortification during fetal development was 0·86 (0·76, 0·97). Exposure to extra vitamin D was associated with further reduced odds of pre-eclampsia (0·49 (0·34, 0·72)) among current smokers, but not among former smokers and non-smokers.
Additional vitamin D in fetal life from food fortification seems to reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia later in life. The risk reduction may be particularly strong among women who smoke during pregnancy.
The study aimed to evaluate the impact of a 15-month intervention on dietary intake conducted among obesity-prone normal-weight pre-school children.
Information on dietary intake was obtained using a 4 d diet record. A diet quality index was adapted to assess how well children’s diet complied with the Danish national guidelines. Linear regression per protocol and intention-to-treat analyses of differences in intakes of energy, macronutrients, fruit, vegetables, fish, sugar-sweetened beverages and diet quality index between the two groups were conducted.
The Healthy Start study was conducted during 2009–2011, focusing on changing diet, physical activity, sleep and stress management to prevent excessive weight gain among Danish children.
From a population of 635 Danish pre-school children, who had a high birth weight (≥4000 g), high maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (≥28·0 kg/m2) or low maternal educational level (<10 years of schooling), 285 children completed the intervention and had complete information on dietary intake.
Children in the intervention group had a lower energy intake after the 15-month intervention (group means: 5·29 v. 5·59 MJ, P=0·02) compared with the control group. We observed lower intakes of carbohydrates and added sugar in the intervention group compared with the control group after the intervention (P=0·002, P=0·01).
The intervention resulted in a lower energy intake, particularly from carbohydrates and added sugar after 15 months of intervention, suggesting that dietary intake can be changed in a healthier direction in children predisposed to obesity.
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