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The brown hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou vestitus is a poorly studied Andean species endemic to Colombia. Its current Red List category is contradictory: globally it is categorized as Data Deficient but in Colombia it is categorized as Vulnerable. This contradiction has limited the implementation of conservation programmes. We evaluate the level of rarity of the species and provide consolidated information for a new assessment of its Red List status. We reviewed literature, photographs, and voucher specimens in natural history collections. Using the confirmed records, we estimated the extent of occurrence (EOO) based on the minimum convex polygon and the area of occupancy (AOO) summing the area of grid squares occupied by the species. We found that C. vestitus is very rare, with a small range, low estimated population density, occurrence in only one habitat type and small body size. The species has an EOO of 3,323 km2 and an AOO of 24 km2, based on six confirmed localities, all on the western slopes of the Eastern Cordillera, in the central Andean region of Colombia. Based on the species' rarity, restricted distribution, and threats to its natural habitat, we recommend its categorization as Endangered on the IUCN Red List. This will help delineate research and conservation efforts for this porcupine, which has a highly restricted range and inhabits the threatened Andean forest.
Background: Estimating the burden of intestinal colonization with antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria (AR-GNB) is critical to understanding their global epidemiology and spread. We aimed to determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, intestinal colonization due to AR-GNB in population-based hospital and community settings in Chile. Methods: Between December 2018 and May 2019, we enrolled randomly selected hospitalized adults in 4 tertiary-care public hospitals (Antofagasta, Santiago, Curico and Puerto Montt), and adults residing in a community-based cohort in the rural town of Molina. Following informed consent, we collected rectal swabs and epidemiological information through a standardized questionnaire. Swabs were plated onto MacConkey agar with 2 µg/mL ciprofloxacin or ceftazidime. All recovered morphotypes were identified, and antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed via disk diffusion. The primary outcome was the prevalence of colonization with fluoroquinolone (FQ)- or third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)–resistant GNB. The secondary outcome was the prevalence of colonization with multidrug-resistant (MDR) GNB, defined as GNB resistant to ≥3 antibiotic classes. Categories were not mutually exclusive. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to describe risk factors for colonization with these categories. Results: In total, 775 hospitalized adults and 357 community participants were enrolled, with a median age of 60 years (IQR, 42–72) and 55 years (IQR, 48–62) years, respectively. Among hospitalized participants, the prevalence of colonization with FQ- or 3GC-resistant GNB was 47% (95% CI, 43%–50%) and 41% (95% CI, 38%–45%), respectively, whereas the prevalence of MDR-GNB colonization was 27% (95% CI, 24%–31%). In the community setting, the prevalence of colonization with either FQ-, 3GC-resistant GNB, or MDR-GNB was 40% (95% CI, 34%–45%), 29% (95% CI, 24%– 34%), and 5% (95% CI, 3%–8%), respectively. Independent risk factors for hospital MDR-GNB colonization included the hospital of admission, unit of hospitalization (intensive care units carried the highest risk), in-hospital antimicrobial exposure, comorbidities (Charlson index), and length of stay. In the community setting, recent antibiotic exposure (<3 months) predicted colonization with either FQ- or 3GC-resistant GNB, and alcohol consumption was inversely associated with MDR GNB colonization. Conclusions: A high burden of colonization with AR-GNB was observed in this sample of hospitalized and community-dwelling adults in Chile. The high burden of colonization with GNB resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as FQ and 3GC found in community dwellers, suggests that the community may be a relevant source of antibiotic resistance. Efforts to understand relatedness between resistant strains circulating in the community and the hospital are needed.
The Mayan Codex of Mexico (MCM), the only Mayan codex found in the 20th century, was unveiled in 1971 during the Ancient Maya Calligraphy exhibition at Club Grolier. The codex comprises 10 pages of bark paper in accordion format, coated with a layer of plaster on both sides. It illustrates the synodic cycles of Venus, with its four phases. Since its discovery, the MCM has been subject to controversy and discussions about its authenticity. In 2016, a group of specialists led by Baltazar Brito chief of the National Library of Anthropology and History, carried out an exhaustive study of the codex with the purpose of determining its temporality and authenticity. In this work, the pre-Columbian authenticity of the codex is verified by the radiocarbon (14C) technique using AMS. Two cleaning procedures were contrasted: the standard acid-base-acid (ABA) protocol and a second one with Soxhlet plus ABA. Results obtained when samples were prepared following ABA protocol only, placed the age of the bark paper between 991 and 1147 cal AD. The second cleaning method with Soxhlet plus ABA, resulted in younger ages, between 1159 and 1261 cal AD. However, we consider that when Sohxlet is used as part of the cleaning protocol, organic contaminants are reduced to a minimum, and 14C dates are more reliable. These results indicate that the vegetal support of the MCM belongs to Postclassical Mayan period and place it as the oldest known manuscript of America found to date.
To conduct a systematic review of studies for the validation of semiquantitative FFQ (SFFQ) that assess food intake in adults.
The authors conducted a systematic search in PubMed for articles published as late as January 2020 in Spanish, English, French and Portuguese. Individual searches (twelve in total) paired three hyphenated and non-hyphenated variations of ‘semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire’ with both ‘validity’ and ‘validation’ using the ‘all fields’ and the ‘title/abstract’ retrieval categories. Independent extraction of articles was performed by four authors using predefined data fields.
We searched for original SFFQ validation studies that analysed general diet composition (nutrients with or without food groups or energy analysis) in healthy adults, in any setting, and that also reported correlation coefficients.
Sixty articles were included. The preferred comparison standard for validation was food records (n 37). The main correlation coefficients used were Pearson’s (n 41), and validity coefficients varied from −0·45 to 1. Most correlation coefficients were adjusted by energy (twelve studies presented only crude values). The elements mentioned most frequently were energy, macronutrients, cholesterol, SFA, PUFA, fibre, vitamin C, Ca and Fe.
Although all these SFFQ are reported as validated, coefficients may vary across groups of foods and nutrients. Based on our findings, we suggest researchers to consult our revision before choosing a SFFQ and to review important issues about them, such as their validation, number of items, number of participants, etc. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO number CRD42017064716. Available at: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42017064716.
Falls are a growing concern in seniors (≥65 yrs). Cognitive impairment (CI) and vestibular impairment (VI) increase fall risk. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of CI and VI in seniors experiencing falls.
Participants (≥65 yrs) with falls were recruited from Falls Prevention Programs (FPPs) and a Memory Clinic (MC). CI was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment at FPPs. VI was assessed at an MC and FFPs using the Head Impulse- (video + bedside), Headshake-, Dix-Hallpike test, and test of sensory interaction in balance. Questionnaires included Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC).
Of 41 participants (29 FPPs, 12 MC); mean age was 80.1 ± 7.1 years, and 58.5% were female. Overall, 82.9% had VI. At FPPs, 76.0% had CI, and 72.3% had CI + VI. Bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) was more common than unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) (70.6% vs. 29.4%); p = 0.016. Dizziness Handicap (DHI) was not different between those with a VI (23.5 ± 23.9) versus without VI [PVI + no impairment] (10.0 ± 15.4); p = 0.160. Balance confidence (ABC) was lowest in VI but not significantly different between those with a VI (63.4 ± 27.3) versus without VI [PVI + no impairment] (85.0 ± 16.5); p = 0.053.
VI and CI are prevalent in seniors experiencing falls. For seniors with history of falls, both cognitive and vestibular functions should be considered in the assessment and subsequent treatment. Screening enables earlier detection, targeted interventions, and prevention, reducing the clinical and financial impact.
To identify sex-specific cut-off points for waist circumference (WC) in the definition of metabolic syndrome (MetS) for the Chilean adult population.
MetS was defined as the presence of at least two out of four of the following criteria: TAG ≥1·7 mmol/l; HDL-cholesterol: <1·3 mmol/l in women and <1·0 mmol/l in men; systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mmHg; and fasting glucose ≥ 5·6 mmol/l or current treatment for diabetes. The receiver operating characteristics curve and the AUC were computed to derive the specificity and sensitivity using bootstrapping (10 000 iterations restricted to have at least between 40 and 60 % of the original population). The optimal cut-off point for the Chilean population was computed by sex.
A representative sample of the Chilean population aged ≥15 years.
8182 participants (60 % women) from the three available Chilean National Health Surveys conducted in 2003, 2009–2010 and 2016–2017.
WC had a good predictive ability for MetS (AUC for men 0·74 (95 % CI 0·72, 0·76); AUC for women 0·71 (95 % CI 0·68, 0·73)). The optimal cut-off points for WC, in the definition of MetS, were 92·3 cm (95 % CI 90·5, 94·4) and 87·6 cm (95 % CI 85·8, 92·1) for men and women, respectively.
The mentioned cut-off points should be used for WC in the definition of MetS in Chile. As a result, the current recommendation (WHO/International Diabetes Federation) for WC, in the identification of MetS, is not supported by these findings in a representative sample of the Chilean adult population.
We present our recent experience with a 6-month-old infant with a personal history of short bowel syndrome that presented with fever, cyanosis, and cardiogenic shock secondary to severe pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure without pulmonary thromboembolism. He did not present signs of toxin-mediated disease or Kawasaki disease. He was finally diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. If this presentation is confirmed in future research, the severe cardiovascular impairment in children with COVID-19 could be also attributable to the primary pulmonary infection, not only to a multisystem inflammatory syndrome but also in children without heart disease.
The global refugee crisis has reignited long-standing debates about how to successfully integrate religious minorities into liberal democratic societies. In the United States, security fears, particularly connected with terrorism, are preponderant. In Western Europe cultural fears seem to dominate, with many misunderstanding Islam as a direct threat to the norms and values that bind their societies together.
Catholicism and Protestantism have different ways of promoting the family unit that could influence survival and fertility at a population level. Parish records in the Austrian village of Hallstatt allowed the reconstruction of Catholic and Protestant genealogies over a period of 175 years (1733–1908) to evaluate how religion and social changes affected reproduction and survival. Life history traits such as lifespan beyond 15 years, number of offspring, reproductive span, children born out of wedlock and child mortality were estimated in 5678 Catholic and 3282 Protestant individuals. The interaction of sex, time and religion was checked through non-parametric factorial ANOVAs. Religion and time showed statistically significant interactions with lifespan >15 years, number of offspring and age at birth of first child. Protestants lived longer, had a larger reproductive span and an earlier age at birth of first child. Before the famine crisis of 1845–1850, Protestants showed lower values of childhood mortality than Catholics. Comparison of the number of children born out of wedlock revealed small differences between the two religions. Religion influenced reproduction and survival, as significant differences were found between Catholics and Protestants. This influence could be explained in part by differential socioeconomic characteristics, since Protestants may have enjoyed better living and sanitary conditions in Hallstatt.
Public authorities in Europe are faced with increasing demands to accommodate religious diversity. This article traces some key issues concerning the limits of the secular State in Europe to accept and accommodate those ethno-religious minorities that are perceived to be partially different entities and claim some jurisdiction, without thereby rejecting guarantees from the receiving legal system. This multicultural challenge that minorities pose to institutionalized secularism is amongst the most complex political and long-term issues European states have to face. Such a challenge has not only to do with socio-economic disadvantage and discrimination in the labour markets but also with the constitutional status or corporate relationship with the State. On the other hand, European anxieties question whether or not Muslims can be and are willing to be integrated into European society and its political values; in particular, values of freedom, tolerance, democracy, sexual equality and secularism. Across Europe, multiculturalism seems to be in retreat and ‘integration’ is once again the watchword.
Selective fetal growth restriction (sFGR) affects about 10–15% of monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies. When presenting during the second trimester, sFGR is a severe complication, with potentially significant risks of intrauterine demise or neurological adverse outcome for both the growth-restricted and the normally grown [1–9] fetuses. Unequal placental sharing (Figure 37.1), often associated with velamentous cord insertion, is the main cause of the development of sFGR in MC twins [10–14]. The natural history of sFGR in MC twins depends both on the discordance in placental territories and on the pattern of placental anastomoses. The blood flow interchange through vascular anastomoses interferes with the natural evolution of placental insufficiency, because the small fetus receives extra oxygen and nutrients from its normally grown co-twin. The pattern of vascular anastomoses, which may differ substantially among MC pregnancies, explains the remarkable differences in clinical course and outcomes that can be observed in pregnancies with similar degrees of fetal weight discordance [1, 12, 15, 16]. Consequently, a large interfetal blood flow interchange will result in a milder clinical course and better outcomes, while placentas with small/few anastomoses and little blood flow interchange will usually be associated with a more severe clinical course. Aside from these, large artery-to-artery (AA) anastomoses connecting the two cords may be present, and also have a strong influence on the clinical evolution.
The multipurpose plant Moringa oleifera (MO) has shown a variety of in vitro activities potentially beneficial for health and evidences are also numerous in animal models. However, the exact composition of the plant is highly variable depending on the area, culture and post harvesting conditions and the effects in humans are scarcely studied. This is a pilot study of the effect of different doses of MO from an Iberian Peninsula cultivar on postprandial glucose level in non-diabetic subjects. Five adult subjects (40 to 70 years, 3 males) with normal renal and hepatic function were included. Two had normal fasting glucose and 3 had pre-diabetic fasting glucose. A standard breakfast plus, respectively, one placebo capsule (PLC), or 1, 3 and 6 capsules containing 400 mg of MO dry leaf powder (MO-1cap, -3cap and -6cap) were consumed by each subject on 4 consecutive visits, one week apart. The basal and postprandial (30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min) glucose was measured. The mean glucose change from baseline (ΔGlc) at each measure time was calculated and compared between treatments with the Wilcoxon tests and considered significant at P < 0.05 level. The postprandial curves were also studied separately in pre-diabetic subjects. A difference was found 90 min after breakfast in ΔGlc for the MO-6cap compared to the MO-1cap, being lower in MO-6cap. No more significant differences were observed due to the small number of subjects and high variability in glucose values among subjects. However, the graphical representation of separated curves for the three pre-diabetic participants showed that all three MO doses led to values always below those with PLC. In addition, during the first experimental hour all MO doses showed lower ΔGlc than PLC while this was not the case when all subjects were studied. No adverse events occurred during the experiment. The study, thus, showed a trend to lower glycemic postprandial response with MO leaf powder which seems to be more evident in pre-diabetic subjects than in normoglycemic subjects and especially during the first postprandial hour. The MO-6cap seems to be the election daily dose for a long term intervention study on the glycemic control with MO in pre-diabetic subjects.
There is scarce research on bone health in early stages due to the difficulties in accessing to bone health assessment methods in absence of pathology conditions. Consequently, there is no much information on the determinants of bone health. The aim of this study is to elucidate the association of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and bone mineral density of children from Aragon accounting for socioeconomic, role parental modelling, dietary and sedentary behavior effects.
Material & Methods
The longitudinal cohort ‘Growth and Feeding during Lactation and Early Childhood in Children of Aragon (CALINA in Spanish)’ included 1,629 born children from Aragon (Spain) in 2009. From those, after 7 years, 339 children (176 boys and 163 girls) were assessed. Bone mineral density (BMD) using Dual X-ray absorciometry (–DXA-), diet quality index (DQI) using a food frequency questionnaire(-FFQ-), sedentary behaviors by questionnaire, and physical activity (using accelerometry-actigraph 3GTX-) were evaluated, as well as if they were or not rapid weight gainers during the first year of life.
From the 339 children, 116 boys (66.5%) and 63 girls (38.7%) met the current MVPA recommendations of at least? 1 hour/day. Boys meeting MVPA recommendations did a mean of 84.02 minutes of MVPA per day and had a BMD of 0.60 g/cm2, while those not meeting the recommendations, did a mean of 43.91 minutes of MVPA and had a BMD of 0.59 g/cm2. Girls meeting MVPA recommendation did 75.52 minutes and had a BMD of 0.59 g/cm2, and those not meeting, did 42.81 minutes of MVPA and had a BMD of 0.58. Models, include BMI z-score (age/sex adjusted based in Anthro standards from WHO), weekly sedentary time, DQI, BMI of the mother and whether or not they had been rapid weight gainers from 0–12months as confounders and were performed for BMD having MVPA as a predictor. A significant association was found only for boys between MVPA and BMD (β = 0.145, p-value = 0.02) while no association was found for girls (β = 0.06, p-value = 0.40).
There is still an important physical activity gap between boys and girls. In boys, physical activity is positively associated with BMD, whereas in girls, no significant associations seem to exist. More research is required to elucidated the effects of lifestyle behaviors on bone health in children.
Recent studies in different countries indicate that PhD students are more vulnerable to psychological disorders compared to the general population. No such data are available for the Spanish population. This study addresses this issue by studying prevalence rates and factors related to a common response to prolonged stress such as burnout syndrome. Burnout, emotional abilities, resilience, satisfaction with the dissertation advisor, and sociodemographic data were collected from 305 PhD students. The results indicated that the burnout rates are high in this group, especially for the emotional exhaustion dimension. Different linear regression models explained between 14% and 41% of the overall burnout scores variance and its dimensions. The psychological variables and the satisfaction with the dissertation advisor were the most relevant predictors. Consistent with what has been found in other countries, the evidence found indicates that the mental state of PhD students in Spain is alarming. The results of this study have important implications for the design and implementation of interventions to alleviate this problem.
Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of nine species of microalgae have been determined to study its potential as healthy ingredients for functional foods. In order to determine the antioxidant capacity, two different techniques have been used. Firstly, a colorimetric test was carried out in order to detect the presence of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant compounds, this method is based on the detection of the radical ABTS + , which is produced by the oxidation of ABTS in the presence of potassium persulfate, detection of the radical ABTS + decreases in the presence of antioxidant compounds. Also the ORAC test was also applied for this purpose. Results with both methods showed very promising results for Rhodomonas lens. Thus this species was chosen to develop a functional cheese and study the healthy properties that the microalgae confer on it.
To determine the antimicrobial activity five food food-borne pathogenic strains were used: Escherichia coli CECT 516, Enterococcus faecalis CECT 481, Listeria monocytogenes CECT 935, Salmonella enterica CECT 4594 and S. aureus CECT 435. First, extracts of different polarity were obtained from microalgae. From each species, 4 extracts were obtained using different solvents of higher to less polarity (MilliQ Water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane). The use of these solvents is common in the preparation of plant extracts, since they ensure the solubility of most of the compounds of interest and do not show toxicity after evaporation to determine the antimicrobial activity. The agar diffusion technique was used and the plates were kept refrigerated at 4 ° C for 1 h to allow the extracts to diffuse through the agar and subsequently incubated at 37 ° C for 24 h to allow microbial growth. After that time the presence of inhibition halos was observed around the perforations of the plates. Results showed that the ethanolic extract presented more antimicrobial activity than the extracts using MilliQ Water, ethyl acetate or hexane. Salmonella was not inhibited by any of the extracts studied.
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a primary care-based group educational intervention about concepts of pain neuroscience for the management of migraine compared to the routine medical care delivered to patients with this condition.
The way pain is understood has been radically changed in recent decades, thanks to developments in the field of neuroscience. Thus, migraine may develop as a result of an exaggerated perception of threat that activates the pain neuromatrix, which might be modifiable, from a learning perspective, by adjusting the beliefs and behaviours that favour the onset of an attack.
A randomised controlled trial was carried out in five primary care health centres of Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country, Spain). The follow-up period was 12 months. The main outcome measure was the reduction in days lost due to migraine-related disability according to the Migraine Disability Assessment Test (MIDAS) score. Secondary outcome measures included the intensity and frequency of the pain and the number of analgesic drugs taken in the previous three months. A positive response to treatment was considered when the MIDAS score decreased by at least 50% from baseline.
Days lost due to migraine-related disability decreased by at least 50% in 68.9% (n = 37) of patients in the intervention group and 34.6% of patients in the control group (n = 18) (P < 0.001). The intensity of the headache [odds ratio (OR) 9.116; P = 0.005] and the medication intake (OR 13.267; P < 0.001) were also significantly reduced with the intervention.
The provision of suitable information through a group educational intervention delivered in primary care appears to be effective in preventing migraine attacks. Moreover, the intervention could offer a new cost-effective management alternative that seems to reduce the need for pharmacological treatment in patients with migraine.
Mexico ranks first in childhood obesity worldwide. However, little is known about the factors influencing maternal feeding practices. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of feeding practices and explore associations between weight concern, weight perception, sociodemographic characteristics and those feeding practices.
Mothers aged ≥18 years who were in charge of feeding a singleton child aged 2–6 years with no endocrine disease or visible genetic malformations (n 507). Information on six maternal feeding practices, concern and perception of the child’s weight and demographics were collected by interview. The mother’s and child’s height and weight were measured. The feeding practices questionnaire was subject to content, construct and convergent validity analysis. Then, mean feeding scores were obtained and prevalence and 95 % CI were determined for scores ≥3; multivariate logistic regression was performed.
Not modelling (63·5 %; 95 % CI 59·2, 67·8 %) and pressuring to eat (55·6 %; 95 % CI 51·2, 60·0 %) were the most frequent feeding practices, followed by easy access to unhealthy foods (45·4 %; 95 % CI 40·9, 49·8 %) and child control (43·2 %; 95 % CI 38·8, 47·6 %). They prevailed despite concern about the child’s excess weight or a perception of the child as overweight/obese. Education was associated with the highest number of practices (educated mothers used more pressuring to eat, less regulation and less easy access; or monitoring was less absent).
The frequency of certain feeding practices needs to be improved. Emphasis on the child’s weight concern, obesity perception and maternal education is essential for optimizing intervention planning.
This study examines bilingual effects in Spanish–English bilingual children with good maintenance of the minority language. The present study compares the performance of a group of Spanish-monolingual children (MON; n = 30) with two groups of Spanish-speaking bilingual children (Low English proficiency group: LEP; n = 36; High English proficiency group, HEP; n = 36) on the elicited productions of Spanish articles and object clitics. Our results suggest that children with LEP performed significantly lower than MON children of the same age on both articles and clitics in Spanish. However, children with HEP, who were a year older on average, performed similarly to the MON group. Both groups of bilingual children produced errors of clitic omission and substitution, but these errors were minimal in the MON group. The results suggest that Spanish clitics and articles are vulnerable to bilingual effects for English/Spanish speaking children with good Spanish maintenance.
The aim of the current study was to examine the heterogeneity of functional outcomes in first episode psychosis (FEP) patients and related clinical, neurocognitive and sociodemographic factors using a cluster analytic approach.
A large sample of FEP patients (N = 209) was functionally reassessed 10 years after the first contact with an early intervention service. Multiple baseline, 3-year and 10-year follow-up variables were explored.
The cluster analysis emphasized the existence of six independent clusters of functioning: one cluster was normal overall (42.16%), two clusters showed moderate interpersonal (9.63%) or instrumental (12.65%) deficits, two clusters showed more severe interpersonal (12.05%) or interpersonal and instrumental (13.85%) deficits and there was a significantly overall impaired cluster (9.63%). Cluster comparisons showed that several baseline and follow-up factors were differentially involved in functional outcomes.
The current study demonstrated that distinct clusters of functioning in FEP patients can be identified. The fact that a variety of profiles was observed contributes to a better understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity characterizing FEP patients and has clinical implications for developing individualized treatment plans.