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Timely access to care services is crucial to support people with dementia and their family carers to live well. Carers of people with dementia (N = 390), recruited from eight countries, completed semi-structured interviews about their experiences of either accessing or not using formal care services over a 12-month period in the Access to Timely Formal Care (Actifcare) study. Participant responses were summarised using content analysis, categorised into clusters and frequencies were calculated. Less than half of the participants (42.3%) reported service use. Of those using services, 72.8 per cent reported timely access and of those not using services 67.2 per cent were satisfied with this situation. However, substantial minorities either reported access at the wrong time (27.2%), or feeling dissatisfied or mixed feelings about not accessing services (32.8%). Reasons for not using services included use not necessary yet, the carer provided support or refusal. Reasons given for using services included changes in the condition of the person with dementia, the service's ability to meet individual needs, not coping or the opportunity to access services arose. Facilitators and barriers to service use included whether participants experienced supportive professionals, the speed of the process, whether the general practitioner was helpful, participant's own proactive attitude and the quality of information received. To achieve timely support, simplified pathways to use of formal care services are needed.
The human disaster is a permanent challenge for the Brazilian government because the difficulties faced are related to the lack of interface between public policies, resulting in fragile analyses of risk and non-prevention, being that annually several Brazilian lives are lost in disasters that continue to happen.
The article is the result of research and presents the analyses of health policy, actions, and programs developed to anticipate the fire victims of the Nightclub Kiss concert hall that took place in 2013 (Santa Maria, Brazil). The objective was to investigate and analyze the disasters and human disasters, especially the fire of Nightclub Kiss when 242 young people died. Causes and determinants were analyzed in order to subsidize public policies, in particular, the health policy.
A qualitative case study supported by the critical dialectic method with semi-structured interviews, focus group, documentary analysis, and bibliographic review.
The experiences accumulated throughout history show that disaster situations require public policies to be able to act readily, resolve, and pay attention to the needs of the population involved. Disasters are increasingly recurrent episodes and generate deep social consequences that mark human life. Managing a human disaster remains a challenge for the health policy in Brazil. The difficulties faced are related to the lack of interface with other public policies. The urgency to incorporate intervention/action strategies into health plans is important. Implementation of prevention and training programs, and adopting strategies and protocols for the whole network of attention is critical.
It is important to emphasize the importance of broadening the theoretical definitions by overcoming the divergences of the concepts adopted between the theoretical and operational field, by elaborating a review of the Brazilian legislation in order to broaden and contemplate the needs of different people.
The adsorption of intact liposomes on surfaces is of great importance for the development of sensors and drug delivery systems and, also, strongly dependent on the surface roughness where the liposomes are adsorbed. In this paper, we analyzed, by using atomic force microscopy in liquid, the evolution of the morphology of gold surfaces and of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) surfaces with different roughness during the adsorption of liposomes prepared with the synthetic phospholipid 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)]. Our results reveal the following. On smooth surfaces of Au only and Au with PAH, the liposomes open and deploy on the substrate, creating a supported-lipid bilayer, with the opening process being faster on the Au/PAH surface. On rough substrates of Au coated with polyelectrolyte multilayers, the liposomes were adsorbed intact on the surface. This was corroborated by power spectral density analysis that demonstrates the presence of superstructures with an average lateral size of 43 and 87 nm, in accordance with two and four times the mean liposome hydrodynamic diameter of about 21 nm. In addition, this work presents an adequate and effective methodology for analysis of adsorption phenomena of liposomes on rough surfaces.
Leishmaniasis is considered a parasitic disease that still causes serious consequences for mankind, because it presents a high mortality rate worldwide. Considered multi-hosts, the parasites of the genus Leishmania are able of infecting a wide variety of animal species. The dog was considered the main source of infection of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in the urban area. However, the role of other animal species in the epidemiological cycle of the disease, such as cattle, remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania spp. in 100 bovines (Bos taurus) from an area endemic for canine VL, using blood culture and molecular analysis. By the sequencing analysis, one sample showed 100% similarity with Leishmania infantum. The results provide the first case of L. infantum isolation in one bovine from the periurban areas of Bauru, state of São Paulo, Brazil.
The effect of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was investigated in N719 dye thin films deposited on silicon wafer with a thin film of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) fabricated by laser ablation in an aqueous solution, using a NdYAG laser (λ = 1064nm). Optical absorption spectroscopy of the Ag-NPs colloidal solution shows an absorption peak at λ = 400nm, associated with a localized surface plasmon resonance in the Ag-NPs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals that these NPs have an approximately spherical shape, with their diameter being tunable by laser power intensity. Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed using low laser power to avoid damage to the N719 dye films. Thus, a small Raman signal is obtained. The Raman intensity was greatly increased when the N719 film was deposited on a substrate with a thin film of Ag-NPs due to the SERS effect. The process was also used in Rhodamine-B to clearly demonstrate the SERS effect obtained by the use of these NPs produced by laser ablation.
Direct polycondensation of L-lactic acid with a comonomer allows tailoring the properties of the product from the very first step. The viscous L-lactic acid co-oligomers with star-shaped architectures obtained were modified with three different acrylate monomers. Regardless the functionalization agent, UV curing was fast and all materials were cell compatible and promoted cell adhesion. The physical properties of the three star-shaped films exhibited a consistent trend as swelling capacity, hydrolytic instability, and gel content decreased simultaneously. A higher network density increased crosslinking degree and gel content among the films with an isocyanate group. The methacrylic end group functionalized material, lowest molecular weight, consistently exhibited the higher hydrolytic instability. Comparison of physical properties of these films with the corresponding linear materials reported previously confirmed the influence of precursor molecular architecture on the final material. The methodology developed herein is prone to scale-up and lead to the industrial production of new bioadhesives.
Assessments of need may contribute to identifying health problems associated with functional deterioration in older people. A shorter version of the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly was developed for routine use in primary care, focusing on five domains: Senses, Physical ability, Incontinence, Cognition, and Emotional distress (SPICE). We aimed to explore its usefulness and feasibility in primary care.
We selected a consecutive sample of 51 community-dwelling older adults. The SPICE interview was completed by GPs and patients, with perceptions about its use in primary care being explored.
Needs were identified in 38 patients. Unmet needs corresponded to 7% of needs overall. ‘Emotional distress’ was the most frequent unmet need. SPICE helped to identify undisclosed needs, was well accepted and its importance in clinical evaluation recognised by GPs and patients, despite concerns about time constraints. Facilitating strategies are needed to improve the feasibility of these assessments in primary care.
This study aimed to assess the risks and opportunities associated with Facebook usage and to explore the moderating role of psychosocial (mal)adjustment, nationality and age in these relationships. This correlational study involved a sample of 452 Brazilian and 500 Portuguese youths, aged between 14 and 20 years. Results showed that these youths spent a daily average of 61-120 minutes on Facebook, three to four times per week, displaying a positive attitude towards its use. These characteristics were most notable in the Brazilian youths [t(950) = 5.64, p < .001; t(950) = –5.07, p < .001; and t(950) = – 6.85, p < .001, respectively]. The Portuguese youths ran more risks than the Brazilians [t(950) = 6.36, p < .001], but both youths equally enjoyed the opportunities. In the case of the Portuguese youths, the risks and opportunities were moderated by the frequency of use, in other words “the higher the usage, the more risks and opportunities” (β = –.235 p < .001and β = –.167, p < .001, respectively). The psychosocial adjustment indicators did not moderate the effects of Facebook usage habits in risks and opportunities. The less psychosocially adjusted youths were those who ran more risks and also made the most of the opportunities. The results are discussed in light of the role of psychological, socio-cultural and developmental factors.
Organolead iodide perovskites, CH3NH3PbI3, have attracted the attention of researchers around the world due to their optical and electrical properties. Their main characteristics include, direct band-gap (1.4 to 3.0 eV), large absorption coefficient in the visible spectrum, long carrier diffusion length and ambipolar charge transport. Aside that, perovskite thin films can be produced with low cost and are compatible with large-scale manufacture. Perovskite thin films have been synthesized mainly by spin-coating technique and thermal evaporation, which can be executed in one or two steps. Aiming to increase the light absorption, nanostructured perovskite thin films are also under intense study, since the nanostructures can absorb more light than a flat film. Thus, in this work, we reported the synthesis of perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) nanorods by means of conversion of lead sulphide quantum dots (PbSQD). The perovskite nanorods were grown by exposing the PbSQD to a highly concentrated iodine atmosphere and then dipping the resulting film in methylammonium iodide (CH3NH3I) solution. The first step converts completely the PbSQD into lead iodide (PbI2) nanowires, ≈50 µm long and ≈200 nm diameter, through substitution of sulphur by iodine atoms and subsequent aggregation of the particles. The later step converts the PbI2 nanowires in perovskite nonorods (≈5 µm long and ≈400 nm diameter). The perovskite nanorods present a regular geometry along all its length. A preferential alignment of nanorods to the substrate plane was observed. The preliminary results show that we can control the size of nanorods through exposition time of PbSQD to iodine, which change the size of PbI2 nanowire as well. The conversion process was studied by x-ray diffraction, optical absorption, photoluminescence and scanning electron microscopy.
The nature of the turnover process calls for the study of more complex relationships among variables beyond simple bivariate or multiple associations between predictors and turnover intentions. The present article aims to examine the predictive value of job demands and resources in the explanation of nurses’ intention to leave the organization and to test the mediating roles of professional burnout and engagement in these relationships, within a Portuguese nursing population. The research models were tested within the scope of the Registered Nurse Forecasting project. Data included the self-report questionnaires of 2,235 Portuguese nurses from 31 hospitals, collected through stratified random sampling procedures. The statistical analyses of the structural models showed that nurses’ participation in hospital affairs, a job resource at the work organization level, was the only significant predictor of nurses´ intention to leave the organization (β = –.45, p < .001). Analyses of the mediation models revealed that the emotional exhaustion symptoms of burnout (β = –.11, p < .001) and job engagement feelings (β = –.15, p < .001) were both significant mediators between nurses’ decisional involvement and their intentions to leave the organization. Results suggest that including nurses in decision-making processes regarding their professional practice policy and environment, and improving nurses’ professional well-being are two crucial strategies to reduce nurses’ turnover intentions.
To compare the impact of three different approaches to primary care mental health on the prevalence of mental disorders.
Millions of people suffer from mental disorders. As entry point into the health service, primary healthcare plays an important role in providing mental health prevention and treatment.
Random sample of households in three different areas of the city of Ribeirão Preto (state of São Paulo, Brazil) were selected, and 20 trained medical students conducted interviews using a mental health screening instrument, the Mini-Screening of Mental Disorders, and a socio-demographic datasheet. Primary care mental health was provided in each area through a specific approach. The influence of the area of residence and the socio-demographic variables on the prevalence of mental disorder was explored and analyzed by univariate binary logistic regression and then by a multiple logistic regression model.
A total of 1545 subjects were interviewed. Comparison between the three areas showed a significantly higher number of people with mental disorders in the area covered by the primary care team that did not have physicians with specific primary care mental health training, even when this association was adjusted for the influence of age, education, and socio-economic status.
Our results suggest that residing in areas with family physicians with mental health training is associated with a lower prevalence of mental disorders.
The Zungaro jahu is an important large catfish of the order Siluriformes that is in danger of extinction due to habitat destruction. Studies on its biology are scarce and the majority relates only to nutrition or parasitology. In order to provide greater information on its morphology and aid husbandry and larviculture studies, the aim of this study was to characterize larval development in Z. jahu from hatching to total yolk absorption. Samples were collected at pre-established times, processed, stained, and analyzed under stereomicroscopy, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Total yolk absorption was observed by 60 hours post-hatching (hph) at 28.75 ± 0.59°C. The newly hatched larvae showed slightly pigmented body, the outline of the digestive tract, evident eyes, and the first swimming movements. Mouth opening took place at 12 hph and the connection between the oral cavity and the rudimentary intestine was observed at 24 hph. Were analyzed the main larval organs and systems: digestive organs, heart, gill arches, sensory system, thyroid, kidney, and swim bladder. As the larvae grew, these organs became more mature and functional. The development of the sensory and feeding structures was observed at the start of larval development, and thus before depletion of endogenous energy reserves, the strategy for this species is to increase its chances of survival in the environment.
We show that superlattice (SL) of PbS quantum dots (QD) can be easily prepared by drop casting of colloidal QD solution onto glass substrate and the ordering level can be controlled by the substrate temperature. A QD solution was dropped on glass and dried at 25, 40, 70 and 100°C resulting in formation of different SL structures. X-ray diffractograms (XRD) of deposited films show a set of sharp and intense peaks that are higher order satellites of a unique peak at 1.8 degrees (two theta), which corresponds, using the Bragg’s Law, to an interplanar spacing of 5.3 nm. The mean particles diameter, calculated through the broadening of the (111) peak of PbS using the Scherrer’s formula, were in agreement with the interplanar spacing. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements were also used to study the SL structure, which showed mainly a face centered cubic (FCC) arrangement of the QD. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of QD in the SL showed a shift toward lower energy compared to one in solution. It can be attributed to the fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET) between neighbors QD´s. Moreover, we observed greater redshift of PL peak for film with lower drying temperature, suggesting that it has a more organized structure.
To evaluate the distribution of asymptomatic infection by Leishmania infantum in a metropolis in Brazil with different relative risks (RRs) for disease and risk factors associated with the infection, an ecological study was conducted using a Bayesian approach to estimate the RR of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) based on cases between 2008 and 2011. The areas were categorized and selected according to disease incidence: low (area-1), medium (area-2) and high (area-3). Cross-sectional study enrolling 935 children was used to estimate the prevalence of infection by L. infantum. Volunteers from these three areas were tested for L. infantum infection by ELISA (rK39 and soluble antigens). Infection prevalence rates were estimated and compared with the RR of disease. Multilevel logistic regression model evaluated the relationship between infection and the analysed variables. The RR of HVL was distributed heterogeneously in the municipality. The infection prevalence rates were: 34·9% in area-1; 29·3% in area-2; and 33·6% in area-3, with no significant differences between these areas. The variables ‘Presence of backyards in the neighbourhood’ and ‘Younger children’ were associated with L. infantum infection. We conclude that infection by L. infantum affects a significant proportion of the infant population regardless of the RR of disease.
The aim of this study was to characterize the embryonic development of Zungaro jahu, a fresh water teleostei commonly known as ‘jaú’. Samples were collected at pre-determined times from oocyte release to larval hatching and analysed under light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. At the first collection times, the oocytes and eggs were spherical and yellowish, with an evident micropyle. Embryo development took place at 29.4 ± 1.5°C and was divided into seven stages: zygote, cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, organogenesis, and hatching. The differentiation of the animal and vegetative poles occured during the zygote stage, at 10 min post-fertilization (mpf), leading to the development of the egg cell at 15 mpf. From 20 to 75 mpf, successive cleavages resulted in the formation of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 blastomeres. The morula stage was observed between 90 and 105 mpf, and the blastula and gastrula stage at 120 and 180 mpf; respectively. The end of the gastrula stage was characterized by the presence of the yolk plug at 360 mpf. Organogenesis followed, with differentiation of the cephalic and caudal regions, elongation of the embryo by the cephalo-caudal axis, and somitogenesis. Hatching occurred at 780 mpf, with mean larval total length of 3.79 ± 0.11 mm.
In the above mentioned article by Vieira et al., an error has been made in the order of which the authors appear. The correct order is stated below:
Renalice Neves Vieira, Joalce Dornelas Magalhães, Jemima Sant’Anna, Mateus Massao Moriguti, Jonas Jardim de Paula, Marco Túlio Gualberto Cintra, Débora Marques de Miranda, Luiz De Marco, Edgar Nunes de Moraes, Marco Aurélio Romano-Silva, Maria Aparecida Camargos Bicalho.