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A 6–18 GHz high-power amplifier (HPA) design in GaN on SiC technology is presented. This power amplifier consists of a two-stage corporate amplifier with two and four transistors, respectively. It has been fabricated on UMS using their 0.25 µm gate length process, GH25. A study of the suitable attachment method and measurement on wafer and on jig are detailed. This HPA exhibits an averaged output power of 39.2 dBm with a mean gain of 11 dB in saturation and a 24.5% maximum power added efficiency in pulse mode operation with a duty cycle of 10% with a 25 µs pulse width.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ovine bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) on composition, proteose-peptone (p-p) content and casein fractions as indicating parameters for proteolysis and coagulating properties of milk. A total of 97 samples of bulk tank milk from Manchega breed ewe flocks were grouped according to somatic cell count (SCC) into four classes: fewer than 500 000 cells/ml, from 500 000 to 10 00 000 cells/ml, from 10 00 000 to 15 00 000 and more than 15 00 000 cells/ml. The casein : protein ratio and lactose content decreased with BTSCC. Proteolysis increased with BTSCC, causing a drop in β-casein and an increase in the γ-caseins from a concentration of 500 000 cells/ml. Regarding coagulation behaviour, the rennet clotting time (RCT) and firming time (k20) rose from 10 00 000–15 00 000 cells/ml of milk. The results showed that the impairment of milk quality and milk ability to make cheese as affected by intramammary infection (IMI) can be inferred from the bulk tank milk of flocks with poor udder health.
This study examines consistency between compensation systems and corporate performance. The main purpose is to analyse how the performance has affected the short-term executive pay in Spanish banking system during the period 2004–2008. The main results reveal that pay-performance sensitivity is asymmetrical regarding the sign of the variation of the performance, since the pay-performance sensitivity is greater when the variation of the results is positive than when the variation of the results is negative. This finding is consistent with the managerial power theory and calls into question the role of the pay-performance incentives to align interest of executives and shareholders.
In up to a quarter of patients, schizophrenia is resistant to standard treatments. We undertook a naturalistic study of 153 patients treated in the tertiary referral in-patient unit of the National Psychosis Service based at the Maudsley Hospital in London. A retrospective analysis of symptoms on admission and discharge was undertaken using the OPCRIT tool, along with preliminary economic modelling of potential costs related to changes in accommodation.
In-patient treatment demonstrated statistically significant improvements in all symptom categories in patients already identified as having schizophrenia refractory to standard secondary care. The preliminary cost analysis showed net savings to referring authorities due to changes from pre- to post-discharge accommodation.
Despite the enormous clinical, personal and societal burden of refractory psychotic illnesses, there is insufficient information on the outcomes of specialised tertiary-level care. Our pilot data support its utility in all domains measured.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify risk points in the different stages of the smart infusion pump implementation process to prioritize improvement measures.
Methods: Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a General and Teaching Hospital. A multidisciplinary team was comprised of two intensive care pediatricians, two clinical pharmacists and the PICU nurse manager. FMEA was carried out before implementing CareFusion infusion smart pumps and eighteen months after to identify risk points during three different stages of the implementation process: creating a drug library; using the technology during clinical practice and analyzing the data stored using Guardrails® CQI v4.1 Event Reporter software.
Results: Several actions for improvement were taken. These included carrying out periodical reviews of the drug library, developing support documents, and including a training profile in the system so that alarms set off by real programming errors could be distinguished from those caused by incorrect use of the system. Eighteen months after the implementation, these measures had helped to reduce the likelihood of each risk point occurring and increase the likelihood of their detection.
Conclusions: Carrying out an FMEA made it possible to detect risk points in the use of smart pumps, take action to improve the tool, and adapt it to the PICU. Providing user training and support tools and continuously monitoring results helped to improve the usefulness of the drug library, increased users’ compliance with the drug library, and decreased the number of unnecessary alarms.
Slope deposits in semiarid regions are known to be very sensitive environments, especially those that occurred during the minor fluctuations of the late Holocene. In this paper we analyse Holocene colluvium genesis, composition, and paleoenvironmental meaning through the study of slope deposits in NE Spain. Two cumulative slope stages are described during this period. In the study area, both slope accumulations are superimposed and this has enabled an excellent preservation of the aggregative sequence and the paleosols corresponding to stabilisation stages. 14C and TL dating, as well as archaeological remains, provide considerable chronological precision for this sequence. The origin of the accumulation of the lower unit is placed around 4295–4083 cal yr BP/2346–2134 cal yr BC (late Chalcolithic) and it developed until the Iron Age in a cooler and wetter climate (Cold Iron Age). Under favourable conditions, a soil A-horizon was formed on top of this unit. A new slope accumulation was formed during the Little Ice Age. Within the slope two morphogenetic periods ending with A-horizons are distinguished and related with two main cold–wet climatic events. The study of these slopes provides a great amount of data for the paleoenvironmental and geoarchaeological reconstruction of the late Holocene in NE Spain.
We report a novel, simple, and inexpensive method for preparing efficient carbon nanotube-based hydrogen sensors. Sensor devices were fabricated by simply spraying single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) dispersions on alumina substrates. Pd-functionalization of the employed SWNTs enabled increasing the device sensitivity to hydrogen. The effect of aging, thermal processing, and the employed carrier gases on the sensor performance is here described. The fabricated thin film sensors exhibited good sensitivity to hydrogen at room temperature in reversible and reproducible detection processes.
The preparation of high-quality ferroelectric PbTiO3-based ultrathin films by chemical solution deposition, using a diol-based sol-gel method, has proved to be successful. However, there is a critical thickness below which the films break up into isolated structures. According to previous studies, above a certain grain size to thickness ratio a microstructural instability occurs and the coatings are no longer continuous. We explore the use of the solvent chemistry to control this phenomenon, as an alternative to the more conventional variation of the crystallization parameters. The use of diols with short C chain lengths leads to films with smaller grain sizes, whose critical thicknesses are lower. A reduction from 40 to 15 nm is achieved by reducing the number of C of the diol used from 5 to 2. A critical value of G/t < 5.0 is necessary to obtain continuous ultrathin films with the processing conditions used.
Given a complete m-primary ideal J in a local regular two-dimensional ring (R,m), we describe every adjacent complete ideal above J as the integral closure of some ideal (f, g) for suitable f, g associated to J. We also provide a geometrical procedure that gives its base points, thus determining its equisingularity class. We decompose the set IJ of these adjacent ideals in terms of the Rees valuations of J. As a consequence, we obtain a geometrical characterization of the finiteness of IJ.
This research analyzes, for the first time using a Spanish sample, the behavioral problems of adolescents in the custody of their grandparents. The sample consisted of 68 adolescents (31 boys and 37 girls, with a mean age of 13.7 years) in the custody of 54 grandparents with an average age of 65.9 years for the grandfathers, and 63.6 years for the grandmothers. The instrument employed was the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL;; Achenbach, 2001). The results indicate that the majority of both boys and girls can be classified within the normal range on scales of internal behavior, external behavior and total behavioral problems. When gender and age differences were analyzed, it was found that boys had more behavioral problems than girls on scales of incompliance with rules and external behavior. Meanwhile, it was shown that older adolescents had more somatic problems, as well as more behavioral problems, as measured by both the internal scale and total scale of the CBCL, than the younger participants.
Aicardi syndrome is defined by the clinical triad of infantile spasms, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and pathognomonic chorioretinal lacunae. Almost all patients are females with severe cognitive and physical disabilities. All of the cases reported in the literature have had early-onset seizures. Most cases of Aicardi syndrome exhibit very slow development, even when seizures are eventually controlled, and the cases with a relatively favourable outcome are associated with low intelligence quotient levels. A relationship between chorioretinal changes or severity of the agenesis of the corpus callosum and prognosis of Aicardi syndrome has been claimed, but few data are available about the clinical features that can predict clinical outcome. We describe a case of Aicardi syndrome in a female aged 24 months. Magnetic resonance imaging showed complete agenesis of the corpus callosum and ophthalmoscopy revealed chorioretinal lacunae in the left eye. She had never had seizures and her psychomotor and language development were normal for age.
Ebstein's malformation of the tricuspid valve is a rare but complex congenital cardiac lesion characterised by a variable degree of dysplasia and displacement of the proximal attachments of its inferior and septal leaflets from the true atrioventricular junction. The aim of our retrospective study is to report the risk factors for mortality, and to determine the clinical profile as seen in 52 cases diagnosed in our service between 1978 and 2002, concentrating in particular on the outcome for the neonatal patient. There were 26 females and 26 males, and the age at presentation ranged from 30 weeks gestational age to 46 years. We found 23 associated cardiac anomalies in 20 cases. Of the patients, 11 patients (21%) died. Actuarial survival at 30 years was 65%. Predictors of death included fetal or neonatal presentation, presence of associated defects, a grade within the Celermajer index of 3 or 4, and a cardiothoracic ratio equal to or greater than 65%. The diagnosis was made in the neonatal period in 24 patients, nine of whom died. Of the 15 survivors, only 4 are free of symptoms. Surgical treatment was undertaken in 9 patients, with a mortality rate of 33% without late deaths, with all the survivors being in good condition. The mean period of follow-up for the 41 living patients was 16.5 years. An arrhythmia of variable severity appeared during the evolution of 27 patients (66%). At present, only 7 cases are in the functional class III or IV of the grading system of the New York Heart Association, but 25 patients (61%) needed some medical treatment, meanly for arrhythmic events. Thus, fetal and neonatal presentation of Ebstein's malformation is associated with a poor outcome. Moreover, the echocardiographic appearance, marked cardiomegaly, and the presence of associated lesions are all risk factors for mortality. Arrhythmia and need of medical treatment are common in older children and adults. Survival after surgical treatment is associated with a good outcome.
The stranding of a female specimen of the genus Architeuthis, a species not previously recorded in the Mediterranean Sea, is reported from the southern Spanish coast (Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean). The geographical distribution of the species is discussed.
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