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To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
To examine the associations between lifestyle factors and active commuting to school in Spanish adolescents.
Cross-sectional study. Lifestyle factors (overall/extracurricular physical activity, television viewing, reading as a hobby, sleep duration, breakfast/fruit intake, smoking and alcohol intake) as well as mode and duration of commuting to school were self-reported. Active commuters were defined as those adolescents who walked or cycled to school.
Secondary schools in Madrid, Spain.
Adolescents (n 2029) aged 13 to 17 years.
Similar percentages of adolescent boys (57·6 %) and girls (56·1 %) were classified as active commuters to school (P = 0·491). The analysis showed that only adequate sleep duration (OR = 1·35, 95 % CI 1·11, 1·66; P = 0·003) and breakfast consumption (OR = 0·66, 95 % CI 0·49, 0·87; P = 0·004) were independently associated with active commuting to school.
Only those behaviours that occur immediately before commuting to school (sleep and breakfast) are associated with active commuting in Spanish adolescents.
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