To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In this survey we give very simple proofs of Kepler's Laws and other facts about central force fields using only Newton's second law, Newton's law of universal gravitation, basic notions of vector calculus, and an elementary double integral.
Hopefully, this article will help undergraduate students of mathematics and engineering who wish to understand these fundamental scientific discoveries.
In many textbooks (see, for instance, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]), Kepler's Laws are obtained using conservation of energy and angular momentum, differential equations, mobile reference systems, or notions not so well-defined such as differentials or ‘infinitesimal elements’. Some of the arguments appear to be rather involved if one is not accustomed to them, whereas the proof of Kepler's Laws may actually be obtained from quite simple facts.
Fourier Transform spectroscopy is able to provide high accuracy atomic parameters needed by many ongoing galactic surveys. Our laboratory has carried out a study of the neutral iron spectrum over the last years to measure oscillator strengths much needed for the calculation of chemical abundances. The main aim of this contribution is to encourage further dialogue with astronomers regarding their current necessities of spectroscopic data, as this would help spectroscopists to prioritise present-day needs within the field.
One of the important challenges that Gaia imposes on the Astrometric Catalogs, is a careful study in everything affected by parallax. A particularly important case is the necessary linkage Gaia - HCRF - ICRF2, which require methods of analysis that are accurate enough so that the provided results are at the same precision level as the work data.
The aim of this paper is the study of the impact that the consideration of different physical properties as magnitude and spectral type of stars has on the geometric relations between Hipparcos2 and UCAC4. In this sense, the pairs of residuals Δα* and Δδ can be considered as functions of (α, δ, r) and for each fixed r, we can fit a vector field on the sphere from which to obtain its components in the VSH basis. The same can be done by grouping the stars considering their magnitudes, spectral types (or mixing them) and then studying the variations in the mentioned geometry. We must not forget that Δα* and Δδ are numerical random variables whose regression on the magnitude m, for example, can be estimated. The results will be computed taking into account r as well as the physical mentioned properties. So, we avoid the assumption that the harmonic coefficients depend only on m.
Mental disorders in the elderly are common, with a 12-month prevalence in the community ranging from 8.54% to 26.4%. Unfortunately, many mental disorders are unrecognized, untreated, and associated with poor health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to describe the prevalence of mental disorders in the elderly primary care (PC) population and its associated factors by age groups.
Cross-sectional survey, conducted in 77 PC centers in Catalonia (Spain), 1,192 patients over 65 years old. The prevalence of mental disorders was assessed through face-to-face evaluations using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Research Version (SCID-I-RV) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI); chronic physical conditions were noted using a checklist; and disability through the Sheehan Disability Scales (SDS).
Nearly 20% of participants had a mental disorder in the previous 12 months. Anxiety disorders were the most frequent, (10.9%) (95% CI = 8.2–14.4), followed by mood disorders (7.4%) (95% CI = 5.7–9.5). Being female, greater perceived stress and having mental health/emotional problems as the main reason for consultation were associated with the presence of any mental disorder. There were no differences in prevalence across age groups. Somatic comorbidity was not associated with the presence of mental disorders.
Mental disorders are highly prevalent among the elderly in PC in Spain. Efforts are needed to develop strategies to reduce this prevalence and improve the well-being of the elderly. Based on our results, we thought it might be useful to assess perceived stress regularly in PC, focusing on people who consult for emotional distress, or that have greater perceived stress.
The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao (2007) by Dominican-American author Junot Díaz is an encyclopaedic novel that presents itself as having much to say about history, literature, popular culture, and the experience of exile. As one might expect from such a wide-ranging yet oblique novel, it invites numerous types of readings. Among them, the most literalist approach is one that takes Díaz's plot on its own tragicomic terms, seeing it as the pathetic story of a Dominican-American science fiction-obsessed ‘nerd’ named Oscar De León and the two previous generations of his family. The novel offers a fragmented account of how these three generations directly or indirectly suffered the events of Rafael Trujillo's rule—that is the period between 1930 and 1961, commonly known as the Trujillato. Told through the perspectives of the narrator (Yunior) and Oscar's sister Lola (Yunior's onetime girlfriend), one thread recounts the downfall of Oscar's grandfather, Abelard Luis Cabral, who in the 1940s tried to keep the lustful dictator Trujillo away from one of his adolescent daughters. Oscar Wao also narrates the dramatic history of Abelard's youngest daughter, Hypatía Belicia Cabral, who flees the Dominican Republic after being nearly killed for having an affair with a man who was married to Trujillo's sister. The bulk of the novel recounts the life of the hardened Belicia and her two children, Lola and Oscar, after she migrates to the USA during the high point of Dominican diaspora, a trend that was spurred by the lifting of restrictions on travel during Joaquín Balaguer's rule in the 1960s. The family's ‘eternal return’ (296) to disaster culminates in Oscar's murder in 1995. Like his mother, he had fallen in love with the wrong person, in his case a prostitute named Ybón, whose boyfriend was a corrupt captain in the Santo Domingo police force. Yunior, the narrator whose identity is revealed well into the narrative, gives himself the difficult task of piecing together the family's history.
Lo raro es vivir is the only novel of the 1990s in which Martín Gaite gives the leading role to a woman much younger than herself, and so bestows this novel a special place in her oeuvre. It is written from the point of view of a generation of women born in the late 1950s, and repeats many of the themes discussed in Martín Gaite's other novels of the 1990s – the relationship between parents and children, divorce, Madrid nightlife, alcohol, drugs and lack of motivation amongst young people. Águeda, the protagonist of the novel, closes a chapter of her life involving the apathy and indifference that followed the first years of the movida, and moves into another chapter where she is able to take decisions for herself, continue with her career and create a family, all of which give her purpose in life. In this novel there is an underlying belief in hope for the future.
Águeda does, however, have certain characteristics in common with Martín Gaite and some of her earlier characters. She is a researcher who works in archives, which links her with Martín Gaite's own work as a cultural and historical researcher. And like other characters of the 1990s novels, Águeda goes on a series of quests, not only to find out about her research subject but also about her own life.
Letters and diaries have often been linked to women's writing. We see female characters in novels writing their diaries, composing letters to lovers or friends, or even imagining those possible letters they would like to send. Indeed, Ruth Perry comments: ‘Women seemed to have a special affinity for this personal one-to-one format.’ And Elizabeth Goldsmith refers to an observation made by Jean de la Bruyère in 1684: ‘Women, he reflects, have a special facility for epistolary expression, giving their letters a natural quality that men have to struggle to achieve.’
Women as writers are scarce until the Renaissance, as the written word was still the privilege of royalty, the upper class and convents. Writing about women as writers in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, María Milagros Rivera observes:
Los géneros literarios que cultivaron fueron la autobiografía (un género inaugurado en la lengua castellana por una mujer, Leonor López de Córdoba), la confesión mística (inaugurada por Teresa de Cartagena), el tratado político, la poesía, la novela sentimental en forma de la vida de Cristo, la novela de caballería y la carta o epístola.
According to Nora Catelli, writing remained a private practice for women: ‘Hasta mediados del siglo XVII, en el ámbito anglosajón, tanto en Inglaterra como en la Norteamérica puritana, sólo el diez por ciento del total de autobiografías, memorias y diarios publicados estaban firmados por mujeres, y lo publicado, casi en su totalidad, era de índole religiosa’.
The use of diaries, letters and other types of life-writing in literature has evolved during the centuries, developing a more introspective and metafictional character, as well as presenting a therapeutic side of self-writing. That evolution can also be seen in Carmen Martín Gaite's literary career, as diaries and letters have been part of the author's output from her first novels and short stories. She not only used diaries and letters as a narrative strategy, but she also reflected on this kind of writing in many of her essays and articles.
Looking at the development of letters, diaries and life-writing in literature provided me with parameters for understanding the development of these types of writing and their function in Martín Gaite's work. In literature, this went from narratives which started as mirrors of life, presenting novels, especially epistolary novels, as the simple reproduction of ‘real letters’ found by the editor, towards a more clear fictional narrative which indeed copied real life. The development of life-writing goes from an objective representation of female characters portrayed by male writers, to a subjectivity of women who take control of their own narratives and present themselves as the creators and protagonists of their own stories. In relation to the different kinds of life-writing, it was seen that there are differences and similarities between letters and diaries even though it is difficult to separate the different types of life-writing, as many of their characteristics overlap.
Carmen Martín Gaite (1925-2000) was one of the most important Spanish writers of the second half of the twentieth century. From the 1940s, until her death in 2000, she published short stories, novels, poetry, drama, children literature and cultural and historical studies. This book studies life writing in Martín Gaite's notebooks 'Cuadernos de todo' (2002) and her novels of the 1990s, 'Nubosidad variable' (1992), 'La Reina de las nieves' (1994), 'Lo raro es vivir' (1996) and 'Irse de casa' (1998). It looks at the use of first person narration in Martín Gaite's work, drawing a parallel between the notebooks and her fictional work. It further analyses the way the author's notebooks relate to the development of her later novels as well as the use of writing as therapy. This work offers a way of looking at Carmen Martín Gaite's work from a personal and intimate perspective. Maria-José Blanco López de Lerma is Lecturer in Hispanic Culture at the Institute of Germanic & Romance Studies, University of London.
Irse de casa (1998) is the last of Martín Gaite's novels to be published in her lifetime. It shares some of the structure and themes of her other novels of the 1990s, but at the same time reveals a parallel with the author's first novel, Entre visillos (1958), especially in the number of characters present and voices heard. The novel is narrated in the third person singular with an omniscient narrator, allowing the reader to be witness to the lives of the novel's various characters at different times in their histories. As Jurado Morales notes: ‘necesita de un narrador externo que logre hilvanar con verosimilitud esos fragmentos y encauzar el argumento hacia su final sin quedar nada suelto.’ The epigraphs of the novel, from Aldous Huxley and Clarice Lispector, in fact, refer to the idea of a history formed by many stories, and one of the characters of the novel, Florita, comments: ‘Gente … lo que hay que añadir a ese argumento es gente. … Gente que vaya contando también sus historias, … un choque de historias.’ The third-person narration and the way the narrative is presented from not just one perspective takes away some of the intimate atmosphere of the earlier novels discussed here.
In Irse de casa, Amparo Miranda, a sixty-three-year-old woman resident in the United States, returns to her Spanish home town after forty years of absence. The reason for her journey, the reader learns, is the film script her son Jeremy has written, La calle del olvido, which will be the catalyst for her life-writing.
Cuadernos de todo (2002) is a compilation of the notebooks or diaries Carmen Martín Gaite began in 1961, when her daughter Marta gave her a notebook on her birthday with the title ‘Cuaderno de todo’ written on the first page, and which, according to the author, gave her the freedom to write ‘todo lo que quepa’. The author recounts the story of the gift in one of the prologues to El cuento de nunca acabar (1983):
Mi hija, que tenía entonces cinco y medio, me pidió un duro porque quería hacerme un regalo, y yo, desde la terraza de casa, la vi bajar a saltitos las escaleras de una calle por donde no pasan coches y donde a veces la dejábamos salir a jugar con otros chicos del barrio. Había una papelería allí cerca y en seguida la vi volver muy ufana con el cuaderno nuevo en la mano. Era – y es, porque lo tengo aquí delante – un bloc de anillas cuadriculado, con las tapas color garbanzo, y en el extremo inferior derecha la marca, Lecsa, entre dos estrellitas, encima del numero 1.050, todo en dorado. Cuando me lo dio, me gustó mucho ver que había añadido ella un detalle personal al regalo. En la primera hoja había escrito mi nombre a lápiz con sus minúsculas desiguales de entonces, y debajo estas tres palabras: ‘Cuaderno de todo.’
Nubosidad variable (1992) is the novel in which the author's projection of herself into her characters is most transparent. This is certainly the novel which best presents the use of diaries and letters in Carmen Martín Gaite's work. Apart from the four-page epilogue, the novel is ‘written’ by two friends, Sofía and Mariana, who meet after many years and decide to rekindle their lost friendship, initially through their writing. This novel has strong metafictional aspects, with the process of writing always in the foreground of the work as the protagonists write and comment on their writing. Life and literature are interlaced, with Sofía as the character who finds it more difficult to distinguish between the two. Towards the end of the novel, Mariana also begins to see her life as part of a novel for which she starts taking notes, developing the people she meets as main or secondary characters in her narrative.
In Chapter I Sofía begins the novel by giving the reader information about their encounter. After years of separation the two friends meet at an exhibition. The first mention of this meeting is at the end of the chapter, when Sofia writes: ‘Quién podía imaginarse que, después de los años mil, en ese local rebosante de famosos iba a encontrarme contigo, lo que son las cosas, con Mariana León en persona.’