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To evaluate the quality of food choices according to adolescent individual earnings in Brazil.
Adolescents were classified according to their individual earnings as having or not having spending power for their own expenses. Food records from two non-consecutive days of the Brazilian National Dietary Survey (NDS 2008–2009) were used to estimate food intake. Quality of food choices was based on two approaches: (i) the NOVA classification, which classifies processed and ultra-processed foods and drinks as unhealthy food groups; and (ii) traditional classification, with beans, milk, fruits and vegetables as healthy food groups, and soft drinks, sweets, snacks and crackers classified as unhealthy. We compared mean food intake (g/kJ or ml/kJ) according to per capita household income (tertiles) and adolescent individual earnings, with adolescent earnings adjusted for household income, using multiple linear regression.
Brazilian households (n 13 569).
Adolescents aged 14–18 years (n 3673).
Males without individual earnings had higher per capita household income than those with individual earnings. Household income was associated with all three food groups of the NOVA classification and seven of the eight groups of the traditional classification. However, only beans and snacks were consumed in significantly greater quantities by adolescents with individual earnings compared with those without earnings.
Adolescent individual earnings were not the main driver of food choices; however, per capita household income was associated with food choices. The consumption of both healthy and unhealthy items increased with increasing household income.
Sociodemographic factors may affect adherence to specific dietary patterns during pregnancy. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy and associated factors among Brazilian pregnant women.
A cross-sectional analysis. Dietary intake was evaluated with a semi-quantitative FFQ during the first postpartum week; the time frame included the second and third gestational trimesters. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy. Sociodemographic data were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Multiple linear regressions were applied to test the associations between the sociodemographic factors and dietary patterns.
Mesquita, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2011.
Postpartum women (n 327) who were 18–45 years of age and Mesquita residents.
Three different dietary patterns were identified: ‘healthy’ (mainly comprising legumes, vegetables and fruits), ‘mixed’ (mainly comprising candy, butter and margarine, and snacks) and ‘traditional’ (mainly comprising beans and rice). Women with a higher monthly per capita family income (β=0·0006; 95 % CI 0·0001, 0·001; P=0·011) and women of older age (β=0·021; 95 % CI −0·001, 0·042; P=0·058) were more likely to adhere to the ‘healthy’ dietary pattern. Women with higher parity were less likely to adhere to the ‘healthy’ pattern (β=−0·097; 95 % CI −0·184, −0·009; P=0·030) and were more likely to adhere to the ‘traditional’ pattern (β=0·098; 95 % CI 0·021, 0·175; P=0·012). Although not statistically significant, older women were less likely to adhere to the ‘mixed’ (β=−0·017; 95 % CI −0·037, 0·003; P=0·075) and ‘traditional’ (β=−0·018; 95 % CI −0·037, 0·001; P=0·061) dietary patterns.
Monthly per capita family income, parity and maternal age were factors associated with adherence to a healthy diet during pregnancy.
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