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To verify differences in the availability, variety, quality and price of unprocessed and ultra-processed foods in supermarkets and similar establishments in neighbourhoods with different social deprivation levels at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
The Obesogenic Environment Study in São Paulo’s Food Store Observation Tool (ESAO-S) was applied in thirty-three supermarket chains, wholesale and retail supermarkets.
Fruits, vegetables and ultra-processed foods were available in almost all establishments, without differences according to Health Vulnerability Index (HVI; which varies from 0 to 1 point and the higher the worse; P > 0·05). Most establishments were concentrated in low vulnerability areas and offered healthy foods with greater variety and quality, despite higher prices. The Healthy Food Store Index (HFSI; which varies from 0 to 16 points and the higher the best) was calculated from the ESAO-S and the mean score was 8·91 (sd 1·51). The presence and variety of unprocessed foods count as positive points, as do the absence of ultra-processed products. When HFSI was stratified by HVI, low HVI neighbourhoods presented higher HFSI scores, compared with medium, high and very high HVI neighbourhoods (P = 0·001).
Supermarkets and similar establishments are less dense in areas of greater social deprivation and have lower prices of healthy foods, but the variety and quality of those foods are worse, compared with areas of low vulnerability. We found worse HFSI for supermarkets located in areas with greater vulnerability. Those findings can guide specific public policies improving the urban food environment.
Meloidogyne paranaensis is responsible for considerable losses in coffee production. Because of the distribution of this species in the main Coffea arabica producing regions, there is a need for management practices to ensure the sustainability of coffee production. In this work, we evaluated the agronomic performance of resistant clones of the Conilon coffee cultivar Vitoria Incaper 8142 in areas infested by M. paranaensis in the west region of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Clones 2V, 3V, and 6V presented the lowest number of nematodes per gram of roots and were considered resistant to M. paranaensis. All other clones were considered tolerant to this nematode, and one had good vegetative growth but allowed nematode reproduction. Clones of Vitoria Incaper 8142 of C. canephora represent an alternative to coffee production in areas infested by M. paranaensis including areas traditionally cultivated with C. arabica.
Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis is one species that causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World. The incidence of infections with this parasite is probably underestimated and few studies exist on this species, despite its epidemiological importance. In particular, there are no studies concerning L. guyanensis metacyclogenesis and no technique for obtaining metacyclic promastigotes for this species is presently available. Here, we have studied L. guyanensis metacyclogenesis in axenic culture, describing the main changes that occur during this process, namely, in morphology and size, sensitivity to complement-mediated lysis, surface carbohydrates and infectivity to macrophages. We have shown that metacyclogenesis in L. guyanensis promastigotes is basically complete on the 4th day of culture, as determined by decreased body size, increased flagellum length, resistance to complement-mediated lysis and infectivity. We have also found that only a fraction of the parasites is agglutinated by Bauhinia purpurea lectin. The non-agglutinated parasites, which also peaked on the 4th day of culture, had all morphological traits typical of the metacyclic stage. This is the first report describing metacyclogenesis in L. guyanensis axenic promastigotes and a simple and efficient method for the purification of metacyclic forms. Furthermore, a model of human macrophage infection with L. guyanensis was established.
To identify generational differences in the dietary patterns of Brazilian adults born between 1934 and 1975.
A cross-sectional study from the baseline of the multicentre Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort. Year of birth was categorized into three birth generations: Traditionalists (born between 1934 and 1945); Baby Boomers (born between 1946 and 1964); and Generation X (born between 1965 and 1975). Food consumption was investigated using an FFQ. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify data-driven dietary patterns.
Individuals (n 15 069) aged 35–74 years.
A three-class model was generated from the LCA for each birth generation. Generation X presented higher energy intakes (kJ/kcal) from soft drinks (377·4/90·2) and sweets (1262·3/301·7) and lower energy intakes from fruit (1502·5/359·1) and vegetables (311·3/74·4) than Baby Boomers (283·7/67·8, 1047·7/250·4, 1756·0/419·7 and 365·3/87·3, respectively) and Traditionalists (186·2/44·5, 518·8/124·0, 1947·7/465·5 and 404·6/96·7, respectively). For Baby Boomers and Generation X, we found food patterns with similar structures: mixed pattern (22·7 and 29·7 %, respectively), prudent pattern (43·5 and 34·9 %, respectively) and processed pattern (33·8 and 35·4 %, respectively). Among Traditionalists, we could also identify mixed (30·9 %) and prudent (21·8 %) patterns, and a third pattern, named restricted dietary pattern (47·3 %).
The younger generation presented higher frequencies of consuming a pattern characterized by a low nutritional diet, compared with other generations, indicating that they may age with a greater burden of chronic diseases. It is important to develop public health interventions promoting healthy foods, focusing on the youngest generations.
The nature of the turnover process calls for the study of more complex relationships among variables beyond simple bivariate or multiple associations between predictors and turnover intentions. The present article aims to examine the predictive value of job demands and resources in the explanation of nurses’ intention to leave the organization and to test the mediating roles of professional burnout and engagement in these relationships, within a Portuguese nursing population. The research models were tested within the scope of the Registered Nurse Forecasting project. Data included the self-report questionnaires of 2,235 Portuguese nurses from 31 hospitals, collected through stratified random sampling procedures. The statistical analyses of the structural models showed that nurses’ participation in hospital affairs, a job resource at the work organization level, was the only significant predictor of nurses´ intention to leave the organization (β = –.45, p < .001). Analyses of the mediation models revealed that the emotional exhaustion symptoms of burnout (β = –.11, p < .001) and job engagement feelings (β = –.15, p < .001) were both significant mediators between nurses’ decisional involvement and their intentions to leave the organization. Results suggest that including nurses in decision-making processes regarding their professional practice policy and environment, and improving nurses’ professional well-being are two crucial strategies to reduce nurses’ turnover intentions.
The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), a mammal species whose population is declining, can play a role as a reservoir or carrier of a wide number of arthropod-borne pathogens. Translocation procedures have been used as an alternative approach for species conservation. However, the veterinary aspects of this sort of procedures are extremely important to minimize the impact on animal health. In order to detect Bartonella and haemoplasmas, two important group of bacterial that have an impact in both human and animal health, EDTA whole-blood samples were screened for the presence of these bacterial pathogens by molecular techniques. As a result, a molecular occurrence of 4.1 and 15.4% for Bartonella spp. and haemoplasmas, respectively, was reported among 97 wild buffaloes sampled during a translocation procedure from Marromeu to Gorongosa Reserve, Mozambique. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses of the obtained sequences were conducted. At least, three bovine-associated pathogens, namely B. bovis, M. wenyonii and ‘Candidatus M. haemobos’, as well as a probably new Bartonella genotype/species were detected in S. caffer. Further studies are needed in order to determine whether these bacterial species may cause impact in buffaloes and other sympatric ruminant species living in the release site.
To investigate the relationship between social deprivation and the food environment. Furthermore, to evaluate if the food environment is associated with the prevalence of obesity among students in Brazilian public schools.
Cross-sectional. For the classification of obesity, weight and height were measured, and the cut-off point of BMI-for-age Z-score >+2 was adopted. Social deprivation level was determined from the Health Vulnerability Index (HVI). To assess the food environment, the density of food establishments in urban residential areas was calculated. Associations between the food environment and the presence of obesity were estimated by binary logistic regression through a generalized estimating equations model.
Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Children and adolescents (n 661) aged 7–14 years.
The lowest social deprivation level showed a higher density of all types of establishments that sold predominantly unhealthy foods. An inverse association was found between the density of supermarkets and hypermarkets and the presence of obesity (OR=0·58; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·93). For the other categories of food retailers, no significant differences were found.
The findings reinforce the need for public policies that promote equality in the food environments of the city. Also, further investigations into the influence of the presence of supermarkets on the nutritional status of children and adolescents are required.
To evaluate the performance of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in predicting
cardiometabolic outcomes and compare cut-off points for Brazilian
Cross-sectional study. WHtR areas under the curve (AUC) were compared with
those for BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). The
outcomes of interest were hypertension, diabetes, hypertriacylglycerolaemia
and presence of at least two components of metabolic syndrome (≥2
MetS). Cut-offs for WHtR were compared and validity measures were estimated
for each point.
Teaching and research institutions in six Brazilian state capitals,
Women (n 5026) and men (n 4238) aged
35–54 years who participated in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of
Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) at baseline.
WHtR age-adjusted AUC ranged from 0·68 to 0·72 in men and
0·69 to 0·75 in women, with smaller AUC for
hypertriacylglycerolaemia and the largest for ≥2 MetS. WHtR performed
better than BMI for practically all outcomes; better than WHR for
hypertension in both sexes; and displayed larger AUC than WC in predicting
diabetes mellitus. It also offered better discriminatory power for ≥2
MetS in men; and was better than WC, but not WHR, in women. Optimal cut-off
points of WHtR were 0·55 (women) and 0·54 (men), but they
presented high false-negative rate compared with 0·50.
We recommend using WHtR (which performed similarly to, or better than, other
available indices of adiposity) as an anthropometric index with good
discriminatory power for cardiometabolic outcomes in Brazilian adults,
indicating the already referenced limit of WHtR≥0·50.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in serum and liver and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity of cattle experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica. The group A consisted of five healthy animals (uninfected), and the group B was composed of five animals orally infected with 200 metacercariae of F. hepatica. On days 20, 40, 60 and 80 post-infection (PI) serum was collected to measure oxidative stress variables. On day 100 PI, animals were humanely euthanized and liver samples were collected. Infected animals showed lower (P < 0·05) seric ADA activities on days 40 and 60 PI but higher (P < 0·05) in the liver tissue compared with uninfected animals. Seric and hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) were higher (P < 0·05) in infected compared with uninfected animals. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were higher (P < 0·05) in infected animals. Catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities were lower in liver tissue of infected animals, while glutathione peroxidase was higher compared with uninfected (P < 0·05). In summary, we conclude that oxidative stress occurs in cattle experimentally infected by F. hepatica, mainly due to excessive ROS production in the course of fasciolosis, contributing to hepatic damage, and that increased in hepatic ADA activity may contribute to the inflammatory process.
To reduce transmission of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in an intensive care unit with interventions based on simulations by a developed mathematical model.
Before-after trial with a 44-week baseline period and 24-week intervention period.
Medical intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital.
All patients admitted to the unit.
We developed a model of transmission of CRE in an intensive care unit and measured all necessary parameters for the model input. Goals of compliance with hand hygiene and with isolation precautions were established on the basis of the simulations and an intervention was focused on reaching those metrics as goals. Weekly auditing and giving feedback were conducted.
The goals for compliance with hand hygiene and contact precautions were reached on the third week of the intervention period. During the baseline period, the calculated R0 was 11; the median prevalence of patients colonized by CRE in the unit was 33%, and 3 times it exceeded 50%. In the intervention period, the median prevalence of colonized CRE patients went to 21%, with a median weekly Rn of 0.42 (range, 0–2.1).
The simulations helped establish and achieve specific goals to control the high prevalence rates of CRE and reduce CRE transmission within the unit. The model was able to predict the observed outcomes. To our knowledge, this is the first study in infection control to measure most variables of a model in real life and to apply the model as a decision support tool for intervention.
The enzymatic activities of NTPDase and 5′nucleotidase are important to regulate the concentration of adenine nucleotides, known molecules involved in many physiological functions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the activity of NTPDase and 5′nucleotidase in serum and liver tissue of rats infected by Fasciola hepatica. Rats were divided into two groups: uninfected control and infected. NTPDase activity for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and ADP substrates in the liver was higher compared with the control group at 15 days post-infection (PI), while seric activity was lower. In addition, seric and hepatic samples did not show changes for 5′nucleotidase activity at this time. On the other hand, either NTPDase or 5′nucleotidase activities in liver homogenate and serum were higher at 87 days PI. Early in the infection, low NTPDase activity maintains an increase of ATP in the bloodstream in order to activate host immune response, while in hepatic tissue it decreases extracellular ATP to maintain a low inflammatory response in the tissue. As stated, higher NTPDase and 5′nucleotidase activities 87 days after infection in serum and tissue, probably results on an increased concentration of adenosine molecule which stimulates a Th2 immune response. Thus, it is possible to conclude that F. hepatica infections lead to different levels of nucleotide degradation when considering the two stages of infection studied, which influences the inflammatory and pathological processes developed by the purinergic system.
The surrounding area of the St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago (SPSPA) (0°55′10″N 29°20′33″W) was investigated in order to verify the physical and chemical influences in species composition and abundance, and the patterns of distribution of phytoplankton in the water column, especially in the thermocline depths. The expedition was held on board the Cruzeiro do Sul Hydro-oceanographic ship, from 21 to 23 July 2010 in two perpendicular and opposite transects. A cylinder-conical net and Niskin bottles were used. Two water masses were identified (Tropical Water and South Atlantic Central Water), and the thermocline depths varied from 40 to 110 m. A total of 128 species of phytoplanktonic organisms were identified, belonging to four phyla. The most conspicuous species was the cyanobacteria Trichodesmium thiebautii; nevertheless, 22 species were considered new registers for the region. The total phytoplanktonic density (1 × 103 to 183 × 103 cells l−1) was low and typical of oligotrophic regions, decreasing slightly with depth. Among the 35 species identified in the vertical distribution, 22 were present in the thermocline depth. The total density of Trichodesmium thiebautii, Oxytoxum longiceps and Protoperidinium minimum had significant correlations with the physical and chemical parameters. These data indicate that SPSPA can be associated to an island mass effect in the local oceanic circulation that mainly affects the physical and chemical characteristics of the surrounding waters. Consequently, these interactions influence the phytoplanktonic community, mainly those located at the end of the photic zone and those that are under the influence of thermocline oscillation.
Symbionts in sponges must interact with the host immune system, and this can be mediated by immunomodulators. As the bases of the immune system in sponges resemble those of higher metazoans, it is possible that compounds from this microbiota show similar effects in other phyla. It is also known that several antibiotics, in special macrolides, can modulate many components of the immune response and sponges and their associated microorganisms are a rich source of these compounds. Therefore, we tested the immunosuppressive capacity of antibiotic substances produced by bacterial and fungal strains isolated from the Amazon freshwater sponge Metania reticulata. Fourteen bacterial and six fungal strains were obtained from samples of M. reticulata collected in the Negro River (Amazon Central Basin region), during the dry season. These cultures were monitored for natural antimicrobial activity, and two Bacillus strains (MERETb.761 and MERETb.762) and one fungus (MERETf.010) were selected. One Bacillus strain, MERETb.762, showed strong and specific antibiosis on Staphylococcus aureus and two fractions of its extract inhibited the degranulation of RBL–2H3 cells. The predicted formulas of these fractions were C12H6N4O8 and C25H4N2O6, both corresponding to nitroaromatic compounds.
To identify risk factors related to Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii infection during an outbreak, associated with laparoscopic surgery and to propose recommendations for preventing new cases.
A retrospective cohort study.
A private hospital in Manaus, Brazil.
A cohort of 222 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery between July 2009 and August 2010 by a single surgical team.
We collected information about the patients and the surgical procedure using a standard form. We included sex, age, and variables with P≤0.2 in the bivariate analysis in a logistic regression model. Additionally, we reviewed the procedures for reprocessing the laparoscopic surgery equipment, and the strains obtained with culture were identified by molecular methods.
We recorded 60 (27%) cases of infection. After multivariate analysis, the duration of surgery beyond 1 hour (odds ratio [OR] 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–4.5), not to have been the first operated patient on a given day (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4–5.2), and the use of permanent trocar (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1–4.2) were associated with infection. We observed that the surgical team attempted to sterilize the equipment in glutaraldehyde solution when sanitary authorities had already prohibited it. Eleven strains presented 100% DNA identity with a single strain, known as BRA100 clone.
Because contaminated material can act as vehicle for infection, ensuring adequate sterilization processing of video-assisted surgery equipment was crucial to stopping this single clonal outbreak of nonturbeculous mycobacteria in Brazil.
Infants’ smiling is considered an expression of affection, and an index of cognitive and socio-emotional development. Despite research advances in this area, there is much to explore on the ontogeny of smiling, its meaning and the context in which it is manifested early in life. This study aimed at: (a) investigating smiling patterns in these different developmental moments in early infancy, (b) analyzing patterns of association between babies’ smiles and their mothers’ affective behaviors, and (c) verifying whether babies can answer contingently, with smiles, to mothers’ affective behaviors. Participants were sixty Brazilian mother-infant dyads. Infants in three age levels (one, three, and five months of age) and their mothers were observed. They were videotaped at home, during 20 minutes in free sessions. The results indicate increase in frequency of infants’ smiling instances across ages (F(2, 59) = 9.18, p < .05), variations in the frequency of maternal behaviors accompanying the variations in infants’ smiling (F(2, 59) = 6.03, p < .05), correlations between infants’ smiling and mothers’ affective behaviors, and contingency between the behaviors of both mothers and infants. It was verified a strong association between mothers’ behavior and their babies’ smiles, emphasizing the importance of affective interactions in early stages of development.
The large number of individuals with severe mental disorders in prisons worldwide has alarming implications, which leads to the question of the appropriateness of the prison system for people with this type of morbidity. This article discusses these implications, the problems in therapeutic approaches and the legal aspects in the Brazilian context.
Previous studies have shown that multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the visual system, mainly by reducing contrast sensitivity (CS), a function that can be assessed by measuring contrast sensitivity function (CSF). To this end, we measured both the CSF for sine-wave gratings and angular frequency stimuli with 20 participants aged between 21 and 44 years, of both genders, with normal or corrected to normal visual acuity. Of these 20 participants, there were 10 volunteers with clinically defined MS of the relapsing–remitting clinical form, with no history of optic neuritis (ON), as well as 10 healthy volunteers who served as the control group (CG). We used a forced-choice detection paradigm. The results showed reduced CS to both classes of stimuli. Differences were found for sine-wave gratings at spatial frequencies of 0.5, 1.25, and 2.5 cycles per degree (cpd) (P < 0.002) and for angular frequency stimuli of 4, 24, and 48 cycles/360° (P < 0.05). On the one hand, comparing the maxima of the respective CSFs, the CS to angular frequency stimuli (24 cycles/360°) was 1.61-fold higher than that of the CS to vertical sine-wave gratings (4.0 cpd) in the CG; for the MS group, these values were 1.55-fold higher. On the other hand, CS in the MS group attained only 75% for 24 cycles/360° and 78% for 4.0 cpd of the 100% CS estimates found for the CG at the peak frequencies. These findings suggest that MS affects the visual system, mostly at its maximum contrast sensitivities. Also, since angular frequencies and sine-wave gratings operate at distinct levels of contrast in the visual system, MS seems to affect CS at both high and low levels of contrast.
Cryopreservation has not been used successfully to preserve fish embryos, although chilling techniques have been used with good results. The aim of this study was to chill Piaractus brachypomus embryos at – 10°C for various storage times. Embryos at the following ontogenetic stages were used: blastoderm – 1.2 hours post-fertilization (hpf); epiboly – 5 hpf; blastopore closure – 8 hpf; and appearance of the optic vesicle – 13 hpf. One hundred embryos were selected from each ontogenetic stage and chilled at – 10°C for 6 or 10 h. The results were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test at a 5% significance level. A significantly greater number of completely developed live larvae were observed following embryonic treatment with a cryoprotectant solution that contained 17.5% sucrose and 10% methanol. There was no survival for embryos cooled at – 10°C in initial developmental stages (1, 2 and 5 h hpf). Furthermore, higher survival rates were observed when embryos were treated at more advanced developmental stages (8 and 13 hpf). Therefore, P. brachypomus embryos at the blastopore-closure (8 hpf) or appearance-of-optic-vesicle (13 hpf) stages should be used for embryo chilling protocols and chilling should be performed using a 17.5% sucrose with a 10% methanol solution at – 10°C for up to 6 h. The best results were obtained with 13-hpf and 8-hpf embryos and cooling at 6 h of storage.
If a photovoltaic (PV) technology is assessed today in a technical framework, then efficiency is the most commonly addressed parameter, followed by service lifetime. Cost, as the third parameter of the "magic triangle", is even less often reported. However, if a new technology is prepared to enter a market, other important parameters have to be considered, especially if non-standard PV applications are targeted.
Organic photovoltaic (OPV) is a well known but young PV technology of the so called third generation, which offers unique advantages for integrated products such as building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). In this contribution we would like to highlight some of the advantages and challenges which are specific to the application of OPV in the field of building integration. Architectural design features of OPV include the ability to adapt semi-transparency, color and shape of the module. Moreover, glass-laminated OPV modules are deemed suitable for BIPV because of their ease of integration, good fire resistance, high energy harvest per nominal watt-peak and long lifetimes.