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Patients with eating disorders (ED) or obesity show difficulties in tasks assessing decision-making, set-shifting abilities and central coherence.
The aim of this study was to explore executive functions in eating and weight-related problems, ranging from restricting types of ED to obesity.
Two hundred and eighty-eight female participants (75 with obesity; 149 with ED: 76 with restrictive eating, 73 with bingeing-purging symptoms; and 64 healthy controls) were administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Iowa Gambling Task, and the Group Embedded Figures Test to assess set-shifting, decision-making and central coherence, respectively.
Participants with either obesity or ED performed poorly on tests measuring executive functioning compared with healthy controls, even after controlling for age and intelligence. Both participants with obesity and participants with ED showed a preference for global information processing.
The findings suggest that treatments for obesity and ED would benefit from addressing difficulties in cognitive functioning, in addition to the more evident clinical symptoms related to eating, body weight and shape.
Southern and central regions of Argentina moved from being relatively poor in the sixteenth century to being the richest in the country today. Although there is some evidence of this reversal, the process of regional growth in Argentina in the first half of the twentieth century is, in the main, unknown. In this paper, we present an estimation of the GDPs of Argentina's 25 provinces in 1914: this is the first consistent estimation of this variable for any period before the 1950s. Our results confirm that in 1914 the city of Buenos Aires and some districts in Patagonia had the highest per capita GDP, and a comparison with the available data for 1953 shows strong persistence in incomes per capita in this period; sectoral analysis of provincial GDPs suggests that growth in the leading districts was driven by economies of agglomeration in some cases and land abundance in others.
To assess the validity of self-reported height and weight by parents of 4-year-old children and subjective weight perception.
Descriptive cross-sectional study.
Paediatric population living in the Autonomous Community of Madrid.
Children born in 2008–2009 examined at 47–59 months of age. Data were collected by paediatricians of the Madrid Primary Care Physicians Sentinel Network. Parents reported weight and height data. Prevalence of weight status categories was calculated using WHO and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) reference criteria. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) were estimated. The appraisal of their child’s weight perception and parental misperception were assessed.
For 2914 children, reported height was underestimated by −1·38 cm, weight by −0·25 kg and BMI was overestimated by +0·41 kg/m2 on average. The prevalence of obesity estimated with reported data was 2·7 times higher than that calculated with measured data (16·2 v. 6·0 %) according to WHO classification, and 3·6 times higher with IOTF classification. Sensitivity to identify obesity was 70·5 %, specificity was 87·3 % and PPV was 26·2 % (WHO classification). Half of the parents of pre-schoolers with obesity failed to identify their child’s weight status. Parental misperception among children classified as having overweight or obesity reached 93·0 and 58·8 %, respectively.
Parents underestimated children’s height and weight, leading to an overestimation of the prevalence of obesity. Small inaccuracies in reported measures have an important effect for the estimation of population prevalences. Parents’ report of child weight status is unreliable. Parental awareness and acknowledgement of child weight status should be improved.
To assess the prevalence of five forms of malnutrition (wasting/underweight, overweight, obesity, stunting/short stature and anaemia) by socio-economic wealth (SEW) and educational level (EL) among children, adolescents and women of reproductive age in Argentina.
Analysis from a cross-sectional survey. Anthropometric indicators and prevalence of anaemia were estimated. SEW was classified according to the proportion of contributors in the household, employment status, EL and medical coverage. EL was categorized by years of formal education.
National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2005.
Children (n 27 015) <5 years, adolescent girls (n 1729) 11–19 years, women (n 4401) 20–49 years.
In Argentina, 26 % of households lived with unsatisfied basic needs and 23 % received at least one form of food assistance. Any form of malnutrition affected 23 % of children, 36 % of girls and 56 % of women. Children were especially affected by anaemia, overweight/obesity and stunting (15·2, 9·9, 7·4 %, respectively). Girls were affected by overweight/obesity, anaemia and stunting (22·5, 15·2, 6·2 %). Women were strongly affected by overweight/obesity, anaemia and stunting (43·8, 19·8, 10·5 %). Stunting or short stature was higher in low-SEW settings, doubling in prevalence between low and high levels, increasing four times among women in reproductive age (P < 0·05). Excess weight among children was higher in high-SEW settings, in women the tendency was inverse. Anaemia showed different tendency according to SEW.
In 2005, Argentina had high rates of excess weight and anaemia, moderate prevalence of stunting and low frequency of wasting/underweight. All forms of malnutrition showed a strong relationship with socio-economic and educational inequality.
This project studies the early Roman non-wheel-thrown Aquitania-Tarraconensis-type (AQTA) pottery from the Bay of Biscay region. The ‘ollae’-type AQTA ceramics display clear evidence of specialised production, consumption and interregional exchange by both terrestrial and maritime routes throughout the region.
The main aim of the present study was to examine the association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and academic performance in children.
School-based cross-sectional study. The DII was calculated based on dietary information obtained from a single 24h dietary recall. Academic performance was assessed by school records provided by the administrative services (i.e. Maths and Language).
Porto area (Portugal).
A total of 524 children (277 girls) aged 11·56 (sd 0·86) years.
The DII was associated with academic indicators (standardized β values ranging from −0·121 to −0·087; all P<0·05). Significant differences were found between quartiles of the DII (P<0·05); children in the fourth quartile had significantly lower scores in all academic indicators compared with children in the first quartile (score differences ranging from −0·377 to −0·292) after adjustment for potential confounders.
The inflammatory potential of diet may negatively influence academic performance. Children should avoid the consumption of a pro-inflammatory diet and adhere to a more anti-inflammatory diet to achieve academic benefits.
Using a unique data set comprised of original research of both the corporate Web sites of the Big Four—PwC, Deloitte, KPMG, and EY—and their affiliated law firms, as well as archival material from the legal and accountancy press, this article documents the rise and transformation of the Big Four legal service lines since the enactment of the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002. Moreover, it demonstrates that there are good reasons to believe that these sophisticated players will be even more successful in penetrating the corporate legal services market in the decades to come, as that market increasingly matures in a direction that favors the integration of law into a wider category of business solutions that these globally integrated multidisciplinary practices now champion. We conclude with some preliminary observations about the implications of the reemergence of the Big Four legal networks for the legal profession.
The design of nanostructured materials based on natural components, such as clay minerals, offers new solutions to biomedical challenges such as more efficient and storage-stable vaccines. Clay-lipid hybrid materials have proved useful as adjuvants in influenza vaccines and with a possible projection to leishmaniasis vaccines and other pathogens. Self-assembly of phospholipid molecules on the surface of microfibrous sepiolite and lamellar Mg/Al layered double hydroxide renders a biocompatible lipid bilayer membrane that ensures non-degrading immobilization of proteins and other biological species including viral particles and DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Immunization tests in mice showed the superior immunogenicity of a clay-lipid-supported virus compared to a commercial aluminium hydroxide adjuvant.
This study aimed to assess the psychological well-being and quality of life in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and the potential psychosocial impact of screening.
A total of 152 children (aged 3–18 years) attending a specialist paediatric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy clinic, and their parents completed the Generic Core Scales and Cardiac Module of the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) questionnaire as well as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; 21 patients (14%) had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (group A); 23 children (15%) harboured hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-causing sarcomeric mutations with normal echocardiograms (group G); and 108 children (71%) had a family history of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with normal investigations and attended for clinical cardiological screening (group S).
In group A, mean PedsQLTM total scores reported by children and parents were lower than those reported by unaffected children (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between unaffected and gene-positive patients. Mean Cardiac module PedsQLTM total scores by children and parents were lower in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy compared with unaffected patients [mean child-reported total score 86.4 in group S versus 72.3 in group A (p<0.001) and 80.2 in group G (p=0.25); mean parent-reported total score 91.6 in group S versus 71.4 in group A (p<0.001) and 87 in group G (p=0.4)]. There was no significant difference between group S and group G on any of the scales, or between the three groups of patients in the mean Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores.
Children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have a significantly reduced quality of life. Importantly, Quality-of-Life scores among unaffected children attending for screening were not different compared with scores from a normative UK population.
Orally administered probiotic micro-organisms are able to regulate the exacerbated immune response during the antigenic sensitisation process. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of probiotic fermented milk (PFM) in preventing or treating allergy in an experimental model, and to investigate its underlying mechanisms. Ovoalbumin (OVA)-sensitised BALB/c mice were fed with PFM before the sensitisation procedure or fed continuously with PFM. At 7 and 15 d post-sensitisation, anti-OVA-specific IgE, IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a concentrations were measured in the serum and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Concentrations of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-4, IL-10 and total secretory IgA (S-IgA) were measured in the supernatants of macerated lungs or in the BALF. The levels of IgA+, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and F4/80+ cells were measured in the lungs by immunofluorescence. Inducible CD4+/CD25/Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells were evaluated in the lungs. PFM shifted the T helper (Th)2 profile response towards a Th1 response that led to the production of IgG instead of IgE, with increasing levels of IL-10 and IFN-γ that play an important role in immunomodulation exerted by PFM administration in sensitised mice. Anti-OVA-specific IgE levels were significantly decreased; however, there was no modification in the levels of anti-OVA-specific IgG and total S-IgA. PFM did not influence Treg cells in treated mice. Consumption of PFM could be a promising strategy in the amelioration of airway allergies, considering that the effect is mediated by the production of IgG through the activation of Th1 instead of the direct activation of Th2 cells to produce IgE.
Mental disorders in the elderly are common, with a 12-month prevalence in the community ranging from 8.54% to 26.4%. Unfortunately, many mental disorders are unrecognized, untreated, and associated with poor health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to describe the prevalence of mental disorders in the elderly primary care (PC) population and its associated factors by age groups.
Cross-sectional survey, conducted in 77 PC centers in Catalonia (Spain), 1,192 patients over 65 years old. The prevalence of mental disorders was assessed through face-to-face evaluations using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Research Version (SCID-I-RV) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI); chronic physical conditions were noted using a checklist; and disability through the Sheehan Disability Scales (SDS).
Nearly 20% of participants had a mental disorder in the previous 12 months. Anxiety disorders were the most frequent, (10.9%) (95% CI = 8.2–14.4), followed by mood disorders (7.4%) (95% CI = 5.7–9.5). Being female, greater perceived stress and having mental health/emotional problems as the main reason for consultation were associated with the presence of any mental disorder. There were no differences in prevalence across age groups. Somatic comorbidity was not associated with the presence of mental disorders.
Mental disorders are highly prevalent among the elderly in PC in Spain. Efforts are needed to develop strategies to reduce this prevalence and improve the well-being of the elderly. Based on our results, we thought it might be useful to assess perceived stress regularly in PC, focusing on people who consult for emotional distress, or that have greater perceived stress.
It is shown that four-dimensional generalized symmetric spaces can be naturally equipped with some additional structures defined by means of their curvature operators. As an application, those structures are used to characterize generalized symmetric spaces.
In Antarctica, crabeater seals tend to strand as immature animals with disorientation, due to their inexperience, given as the probable cause. In 2012 and 2013, we examined a group of 80 mummified crabeater seals on Seymour Island (Marambio). The age and gender of 28 seals was determined, and virology and stomach content analyses were performed in order to determine the cause of stranding. Around 82% of the seals examined were adults and 79% were females, some of which were pregnant. All of the seals sampled tested negative for Morbillivirus, suggesting that the stranding was not related to the mass mortality event reported in the 1950s in the region. Most seals had empty stomachs and thin blubber suggesting that they died from starvation. The state of the carcasses suggests multiple stranding events. Most of the seals were located along an ice-covered stream, suggesting that this may act as a ‘natural trap’, isolating the seals from the open ocean. This is exceptional as it is the first report of mostly adult female seals to strand in Antarctica and refutes the theory that only young animals are prone to stranding.