Please note, due to essential maintenance online transactions will not be possible between 02:30 and 04:00 BST, on Tuesday 17th September 2019 (22:30-00:00 EDT, 17 Sep, 2019). We apologise for any inconvenience.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Falls prevention strategies can only be effective in reducing falls amongst older people if they are adopted and enacted in their daily lives. There is limited evidence identifying what older people in residential aged care (RAC) homes understand about falls and falls prevention, or what may limit or enable their adoption of strategies. This study was conducted in two countries and explored older people's knowledge and awareness of falls and their preferences, opportunities and motivation to undertake falls prevention strategies. A cross-sectional survey was administered to participants (N = 70) aged 65 years and over, living in six RAC homes in Perth, Australia and six RAC homes in Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom. Participants had limited knowledge about intrinsic falls risk factors and strategies to address these and frequently expressed self-blame regarding falling. Almost all (N = 67, 95.7%) participants felt highly motivated to maintain their current functional mobility and independence in everyday tasks. Key preferences for receiving falls prevention messages favoured a positive approach promoting wellness and independence (N = 41, 58.6%) via pictorial posters or brochures (N = 37, 52.9%) and small group discussions preferably with demonstrations (N = 18, 25.7%). Findings from this study may assist organisations and staff to more effectively engage with older people living in RAC about falls prevention and design targeted resources to address the motivations and preferences of this population.
Evidence suggests that semantic interference may be a sensitive indicator of early dementia. We examined the utility of the Semantic Interference Test (SIT), a cognitive stress memory paradigm which taps proactive and retroactive semantic interference, for predicting progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia in both a clinical and a population-based sample.
Participants with MCI in the clinical (n = 184) and population-based (n = 435) samples were followed for up to four years. We employed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methods to establish optimal thresholds for four different SIT indices. Threshold performance was compared in the two samples using logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression models.
Within four years, 42 (22.8%) MCI individuals in the clinical sample and 45 (10.3%) individuals in the population-based sample progressed to dementia. Overall classification accuracy of SIT thresholds ranged from 61.4% to 84.8%. Different subtests of the SIT had slightly different performance characteristics in the two samples. However, regression models showed that thresholds established in the clinical sample performed similarly in the population sample before and after adjusting for demographics and other baseline neuropsychological test scores.
Despite differences in demographic composition and progression rates, baseline SIT scores predicted progression from MCI to dementia similarly in both samples. Thresholds that best predicted progression were slightly below thresholds established for distinguishing between amnestic MCI and cognitively normal subjects in clinical practice. This confirms the utility of the SIT in both clinical and population-based samples and establishes thresholds most predictive of progression of individuals with MCI.
This book provides an overview of the research related to psychological assessment across South Africa. The thirty-six chapters provide a combination of psychometric theory and practical assessment applications in order to combine the currently disparate research that has been conducted locally in this field. Existing South African texts on psychological assessment are predominantly academic textbooks that explain psychometric theory and provide brief descriptions of a few testing instruments. Psychological Assessment in South Africa provides in-depth coverage of a range of areas within the broad field of psychological assessment, including research conducted with various psychological instruments. The chapters critically interrogate the current Eurocentric and Western cultural hegemonic practices that dominate the field of psychological assessment. The book therefore has the potential to function both as an academic text for graduate students, as well as a specialist resource for professionals, including psychologists, psychometrists, remedial teachers and human resource practitioners.
The present publication presents oxygen properties and pumping behaviour of Dysidea avara. Oxygen profiles were measured near and inside the atrial space of the osculum with a Clark-type micro-electrode. Pumping sponges had profiles with oxygen concentrations marginally lower than that of the aquarium water. In contrast, diffusive profiles, with a clear boundary layer above the sponge surface, and oxygen penetrating only 0.5 mm into the sponge tissue, were typically that of a sponge which was not pumping. Diffusive oxygen flux at the sponge surface was 4.2 μmol O2 cm2 d1 and the calculated volumetric filtration rate was 0.3 cm3 water cm3 sponge min1. The oxygen concentration in the osculum was temporally fluctuating between 95 and 59% saturation at a frequency of approximately once per minute. The combination of static oxygen micro-electrode measurements and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) allowed us to simultaneously observe fine-scale oxygen fluxes and oscular flow patterns in active sponges, even at extremely low pumping rates. Oscular oxygen concentration and flow were correlated but not always synchronous to the second. Particle tracking velocimetry was used to visualize the flow field around the sponge and to distinguish sponge-generated flow from the unidirectional current in a flow-cell.
It has been suggested that people with psychopathic disorders lack
empathy because they have deficits in processing distress cues (e.g.
fearful facial expressions).
To investigate brain function when individuals with psychopathy and a
control group process facial emotion.
Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging we compared six
people scoring ⩾25 on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist–Revised and nine
non-psychopathic healthy volunteers during an implicit emotion processing
task using fearful, happy and neutral faces.
The psychopathy group showed significantly less activation than the
control group in fusiform and extrastriate cortices when processing both
facial emotions. However, emotion type affected response pattern. Both
groups increased fusiform and extrastriate cortex activation when
processing happy faces compared with neutral faces, but this increase was
significantly smaller in the psychopathy group. In contrast, when
processing fearful faces compared with neutral faces, the control group
showed increased activation but the psychopathy group decreased
activation in the fusiform gyrus.
People with psychopathy have biological differences from controls when
processing facial emotion, and the pattern of response differs according
to emotion type.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.