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Over the past decade, the World Health Summit (WHS) has provided a global platform for policy-makers and decision-makers to interact with academics and practitioners on global health. Recently the WHS adopted health security into their agenda for transnational disease risks (eg, Ebola and antimicrobial resistance) that increasingly threaten multiple sectors. Global health engagement (GHE) focuses efforts across interdisciplinary and interorganizational lines to identify critical threats and provide rapid deployment of key resources at the right time for addressing health security risks. As a product of subject matter experts convening at the WHS, a special side-group has organically risen with leadership and coordination from the German Institute for Defense and Strategic Studies in support of GHE activities across governmental, academic, and industry partners. Through novel approaches and targeted methodology that maximize outcomes and streamline global health operational process, the Global Health Security Alliance (GloHSA) was born. This short conference report describes in more detail the GloHSA.
Training for the clinical research workforce does not sufficiently prepare workers for today’s scientific complexity; deficiencies may be ameliorated with training. The Enhancing Clinical Research Professionals’ Training and Qualifications developed competency standards for principal investigators and clinical research coordinators.
Clinical and Translational Science Awards representatives refined competency statements. Working groups developed assessments, identified training, and highlighted gaps.
Forty-eight competency statements in 8 domains were developed.
Training is primarily investigator focused with few programs for clinical research coordinators. Lack of training is felt in new technologies and data management. There are no standardized assessments of competence.
The translation of discoveries to drugs, devices, and behavioral interventions requires well-prepared study teams. Execution of clinical trials remains suboptimal due to varied quality in design, execution, analysis, and reporting. A critical impediment is inconsistent, or even absent, competency-based training for clinical trial personnel.
In 2014, the National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) funded the project, Enhancing Clinical Research Professionals’ Training and Qualifications (ECRPTQ), aimed at addressing this deficit. The goal was to ensure all personnel are competent to execute clinical trials. A phased structure was utilized.
This paper focuses on training recommendations in Good Clinical Practice (GCP). Leveraging input from all Clinical and Translational Science Award hubs, the following was recommended to NCATS: all investigators and study coordinators executing a clinical trial should understand GCP principles and undergo training every 3 years, with the training method meeting the minimum criteria identified by the International Conference on Harmonisation GCP.
We anticipate that industry sponsors will acknowledge such training, eliminating redundant training requests. We proposed metrics to be tracked that required further study. A separate task force was composed to define recommendations for metrics to be reported to NCATS.
Supermarket receipts have the potential to provide prospective, objective information about the household food supply. The aim of this study was to develop an index to estimate population diet quality using food purchase data. Supermarket receipt data of 1 month were available for 836 adults from a corporate office of a large retail chain. Participants were aged 19–65 years (mean 37·6 (sd 9·3) years), 56 % were female and 63 % were overweight or obese. A scoring system (Healthy Trolley Index (HETI)) was developed to compare food expenditure with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Monthly expenditure per food group, as a proportion of total food expenditure, was compared with food group recommendations, and a HETI score was calculated to estimate overall compliance with guidelines. Participants spent the greatest proportion on discretionary foods, which are high in fat/sugar (34·8 %), followed by meat including beef and chicken (17·0 %), fresh and frozen vegetables (13·5 %) and dairy foods (11·3 %). The average HETI score ranged from 22·6 to 93·1 (out of 100, mean 58·8 (sd 10·9)). There was a stepwise decrease in expenditure on discretionary foods by increasing HETI quintile, whereas expenditure on fruit and vegetables increased with HETI quintile (P<0·001). The HETI score was lower in obese compared with normal-weight participants (55·9 v. 60·3; P<0·01). Obese participants spent more on discretionary foods (38·3 v. 32·7 %; P<0·01) and less on fruits and vegetables (19·3 v. 22·2 %; P<0·01). The HETI may be a useful tool to describe supermarket purchasing patterns and quality of the household food supply with application for consumer feedback to assist improved quality of foods purchased.
Languages differ in how they encode events. Some languages (e.g., English) encode manner of motion (e.g., hop) in verbs while others (e.g., Spanish) encode the path of motion (e.g., descender-descend) (Talmy, 1985). This study examines verb construal in Japanese bilingual adults (L1-Japanese, L2-English). Maguire, Hirsh-Pasek, Golinkoff, Imai, Haryu, Vanegas, Okada, Pulverman and Sanchez-Davis (2010) suggest that although Japanese is traditionally considered a path language, manner plays an important role in Japanese verbs. Bilinguals completed two verb construal tasks (one in English; one in Japanese). Results showed that the Japanese bilinguals construed a novel verb as encoding manner for English and chose path for Japanese. This differs from Maguire et al. (2010) who found that Japanese monolinguals construed a novel verb as encoding manner. Bilinguals may find it useful to highlight differences between Japanese and English to keep the two languages distinct. Bilingual verb construal may be influenced by the linguistic typology of bilinguals’ L1 and L2.
This chapter will focus in on technology itself as much as music and will look at the transition in music technology, especially during the second half of the twentieth century, with the gradual introduction and eventual takeover of digital recording and computers. Lest some readers become concerned that this takeover is complete and absolute, let us acknowledge at the outset that the analog remains, from do-it-yourself electronics and circuit bending experiments to the necessity of speakers and microphones.
The story of the move from analog to digital technology is one of accumulating change rather than a single handover point, with a number of salient aspects. First, there was a substantial miniaturization of electronic components in the second half of the twentieth century, following the invention of the transistor (as developed at Bell Labs from 1947, though there are precedents). Second, digital signal processing research earlier in the century gradually made it into practical devices, which came to a head in audio consumer terms around 1982 – the introduction of the CD – but admits pre-cursors much further back. The rise of digital technology also has close links to the rise of the computer following the Second World War, through 1970s video games to a mass market in the 1980s for home computers.
We hope you've found much to engage you in this introduction to electronic music. We could hardly explore every path, but have pointed out a few routes; the further reading and listening suggestions in the chapters will lead you on many interesting musical journeys. The final suggestions for this chapter are a collection of some further alternative histories, theories, ideas, and music to pursue. We'd like to take the opportunity in the paragraphs remaining to us to point to a few further trends and movements in electronic music, perhaps because they were given less attention elsewhere in the book or are worth acknowledging as ongoing sites of scholarship and musical activity.
There is certainly a mass interest in electronic music history, evidenced by articles and programs on electronic music in popular media, and often associated with the avid technology-rich cultures of the present. Retro movements pore over the inspiring examples, and missed opportunities, of the past, spending more time with, say, 8-bit music, than the accelerating technology curve allowed in the 1980s. Enthusiasts collect and restore old equipment; Phil Cirocco describes in great detail a loving restoration of a 1940 Novachord, a romantic adventure in electronics, metal, and wood, set against a peril of “black tar” contamination of the unit by old capacitors. There is a continuing use of legacy equipment, such as in the analog studio room at The Hague's Institute of Sonology, amongst many other institutions keeping alive tape and analog synthesizer tradition. Long-term maintenance is an active issue in the fast-paced technology world, especially for software; open source software has a potentially greater chance of survival, as seen by the long existence of the Music 1 descendant Csound. Propellerheads’ proprietary Rebirth software, originally released in 1997, has been discontinued and is now given tribute in an online museum (www.rebirthmuseum.com), though it has also recently re-appeared in the form of an iPhone app.
At the Eurovision Song Contest in 1980, the synthesizer trio Telex performed Belgium's entry. They appeared, swaying, in dapper scarves, in front of a large unplugged modular synthesizer, and sang a deliberately inane tune, appropriately entitled “Euro-vision.” Typical of the humor of the band, they were aiming for last place and zero points, but were in turn ironically scuppered by Portugal's award of ten points and were dragged into third from last.
Kraftwerk, the rather more famous German synthesizer band, who pioneered the all-synthesizer ensemble as a force in popular music, also had an underlying sense of humor and humanity. Their albums may seem to be continuing the progressive rock tradition of concept albums, taking on such technological themes as Autobahn (1974), Radio-Activity (1975), Trans-Europe Express (1977), The Man-Machine (1978), and Computer World (1981), though they are really tightly prepared and marketed packages. Although some longer tracks appear well beyond the duration of a three-minute pop song, the extended improvisation of the German experimental music scene that Kraftwerk grew out of is left far behind in their more well-known work. Their longer tracks promote a mold of extended dance workouts and minimalist tapestries in pop. Exploring a powerful array of analog and later digital equipment, however rigid the sequencing, they emphasized the human being amongst the technology. Their design harks back to earlier eras, such as the clear link to the film Metropolis (1927) in die-Mensch Maschine, or the doubly meant radio and atomic age of the punning title Radio-Activity.
Having considered the general history of recording, we'll now examine the development of electronic music more intensively up until just before the middle of the twentieth century. Selecting dividing points in historical surveys always involves a degree of arbitrariness, but for our purposes, 1948 provides a useful line, corresponding as it does not only with Schaeffer's first musique concrète studies, but also to signs of the forthcoming post-war economic boom, following a wartime technology push in such areas as communications and computing. The year 1947 had seen the beginning of practical transistor technology, and the first commercial magnetic tape recorders in the US appeared after Bing Crosby's broadcast from tape in November 1947.
In looking at this early period, we'll explore the creation of new instruments and new sounds through nascent electrical technology, jumping around slightly in history to explore different ideas and lines of development. Artistic and commercial measures of success will at times work together and at other times be in conflict. The history of electronic instrument development is an extremely diverse one, presenting many different interfaces: For our purposes, we can consider the interface to be the mechanism(s) via which a performer controls an instrument. We might make a useful distinction between those instruments that make use of, mimic or augment traditional instrumental interfaces (most notably, but not exclusively, the keyboard) and those which explore entirely new ones. The latter category includes some exotic developments indeed and there has been an ongoing debate about questions of accessibility, virtuosity, and expressivity with new interfaces for musical performance. Traditional interfaces (at least potentially) allow for performers to take advantage of existing skills, but at the same time may limit the potential of an instrument by constricting the range of control and expressivity.
Not all experimental electronic music artists are associated with a formalized art world or academia. This chapter explores rich musics that have grown through the enthusiasm and graft of practitioners on the fringes of popular music, or just simply exploring their own path in alternative and underground culture. It would hardly be accurate to call these exponents of experimental electronica popular musicians, since their audiences are certainly not the mass audiences of the pop charts, even though there are sometimes sufficient followers to support distinct niches of activity and a few chief exponents in full-time creation. Further, this chapter will bring together diverse sonic bedfellows that may sit rather uncomfortably alongside one another in their aesthetics, noise music being chief amongst the dissenters. Nonetheless, the historical overlap of the development of these forms often looks back to 1970s counterculture.
The term “electronica” itself was adopted in the US as a marketing umbrella in the late 1990s, particularly to cover electronic dance music acts, and the influence of this on popular music in general (such as Madonna's collaboration with William Orbit on Ray of Light (1998)). In Europe, the term has more generally alluded to electronic music in general (perhaps particularly some of the musics touched on in this chapter, post-1970) and in Latin-derived languages simply means electronic music. We title the chapter “Experimental electronica” to make it clear that the majority of artists considered herein are not exactly mainstream pop musicians, but new experimenters in electronic music. For example, rather than the Cabaret Voltaire of the 1980s, who became more commercially focused, we might prefer to consider the model of Cabaret Voltaire in 1970s Sheffield, primarily concerned with experiment in new sounds.
Welcome to an exploration of electronic music, in many places and many guises. In societies tracking technological developments, the role of electricity in music has had a great impact on musical production and consumption, a musical influence as worldwide as the network of telecommunications. It has changed the balance of the instruments most commonly practiced, for example, toward electric guitars, turntables, and arguably the computer itself, and promoted an emphasis on recordings as the driver of mass musical contact. Yet the transformation has not been total, for traditional activities like live performance have continued in strength, albeit somewhat transfigured by such electronic factors as amplification and the Internet. Participation is not always subservient to passive reception, but is actively encouraged in such instances as musical video games and generative software for mobiles. Acoustic instruments have lost none of their charm and history, though some new history has been written by the interaction of acoustic means and the electrical transformation of sound. There always remains the option of turning off the power, but, unsurprisingly, we won't advocate that step in this book.
The term electronic formally denotes applications of the transistor, a specific electrical component popularized from the mid-twentieth century onward that enables the substantial miniaturization of circuits. Joel Chadabe titles his book on the history of electronic music Electric Music and the best terminology is sometimes contentious. You may see reference to electroacoustic music as an overall term: In the broadest sense, it simply means sound reproduced using electronic means, such as loudspeakers, but can be employed in a more constrained sense of highly designed electronic art music for close listening with an emphasis on space and timbre (more on this later).