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This chapter will discuss certification (and, to a lesser extent, collective) marks, which comprise an increasingly important proportion of marks in use within interstate and international commerce.1 Unlike trademarks and service marks, which serve primarily as indicators of source, certification marks have other acknowledged functions in trademark law and policy. For example, certification marks in the United States exist “to certify regional or other origin, material, mode of manufacture, quality, accuracy, or other characteristics of such person’s goods or services or that the work or labor on the goods or services was performed by members of a union or other organization.”2 According to the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), “a certification mark … inform[s] purchasers that the goods or services of a person possess certain characteristics or meet certain qualifications or standards established by another person. [It] does not indicate origin in a single commercial or proprietary source the way a trademark or service mark does.”3
Public–private partnerships (PPPs) play an increasingly prominent role in addressing global development challenges. United Nations agencies and other organizations are relying on PPPs to improve global health, facilitate access to scientific information, and encourage the diffusion of climate change technologies. For this reason, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development highlights their centrality in the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). At the same time, the intellectual property dimensions and implications of these efforts remain under-examined. Through selective case studies, this illuminating work contributes to a better understanding of the relationships between PPPs and intellectual property considered within a global knowledge governance framework, that includes innovation, capacity-building, technological learning, and diffusion. Linking global governance of knowledge via intellectual property to the SDGs, this is the first book to chart the activities of PPPs at this important nexus.