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The Apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele increases the risk for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia, but not all carriers develop MCI/dementia. The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine if early and subtle preclinical signs of cognitive dysfunction and medial temporal lobe atrophy are observed in cognitively intact ε4 carriers who subsequently develop MCI.
Twenty-nine healthy, cognitively intact ε4 carriers (ε3/ε4 heterozygotes; ages 65–85) underwent neuropsychological testing and MRI-based measurements of medial temporal volumes over a 5-year follow-up interval; data were converted to z-scores based on a non-carrier group consisting of 17 ε3/ε3 homozygotes.
At follow-up, 11 ε4 carriers (38%) converted to a diagnosis of MCI. At study entry, the MCI converters had significantly lower scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) Trials 1–5, and RAVLT Immediate Recall compared to non-converters. MCI converters also had smaller MRI volumes in the left subiculum than non-converters. Follow-up logistic regressions revealed that left subiculum volumes and RAVLT Trials 1–5 scores were significant predictors of MCI conversion.
Results from this exploratory study suggest that ε4 carriers who convert to MCI exhibit subtle cognitive and volumetric differences years prior to diagnosis.
Cyproheptadine, an antiserotonergic agent, was used to treat neuroleptic-induced akathisia.
In an open clinical trial 17 neuroleptic-treated patients with akathisia were administered cyproheptadine (16 mg/day) over 4 days. Assessment of akathisia, psychosis and depression were monitored by BAS, BPRS and HAM-D.
All subjects showed improvement in the severity of akathisia, which in the majority (15/17) was of a marked degree. There was no aggravation of psychosis or depression. Symptoms of akathisia returned when cyproheptadine was discontinued.
Cyproheptadine may be useful in neuroleptic-induced akathisia.