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Mortality has been suggested to be increased in autism spectrum disorder
To examine both all-cause and cause-specific mortality in ASD, as well as
investigate moderating role of gender and intellectual ability.
Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for a population-based cohort of ASD
probands (n = 27 122, diagnosed between 1987 and 2009)
compared with gender-, age- and county of residence-matched controls
(n = 2 672 185).
During the observed period, 24 358 (0.91%) individuals in the general
population died, whereas the corresponding figure for individuals with
ASD was 706 (2.60%; OR = 2.56; 95% CI 2.38–2.76). Cause-specific analyses
showed elevated mortality in ASD for almost all analysed diagnostic
categories. Mortality and patterns for cause-specific mortality were
partly moderated by gender and general intellectual ability.
Premature mortality was markedly increased in ASD owing to a multitude of
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and it has been suggested that combined bipolar disorder and ADHD is aetiologically distinct from the pure disorders.
To clarify whether ADHD shares genetic and environmental factors with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.
By linking longitudinal Swedish national registers, we identified 61 187 persons with ADHD (the proband group) and their first- and second-degree relatives, and matched them with a control group of people without ADHD and their corresponding relatives. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the risks of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in the relatives of the two groups.
First-degree relatives of the ADHD proband group were at increased risk of both bipolar disorder (odds ratio (OR) = 1.84−2.54 for parents, offspring and full siblings) and schizophrenia (OR = 1.71−2.22 for parents, offspring and full siblings). The risks of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia among second-degree relatives were substantially lower than among full siblings.
These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of ADHD and bipolar disorder as well as ADHD and schizophrenia is due to shared genetic factors, rather than representing completely aetiologically distinct subsyndromes.
There is a long-standing belief that creativity is coupled with psychopathology.
To test this alleged association and to investigate whether any such association is the result of environmental or genetic factors.
We performed a nested case–control study based on Swedish registries. The likelihood of holding a creative occupation in individuals who had received in-patient treatment for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or unipolar depression between 1973 and 2003 and their relatives without such a diagnosis was compared with that of controls.
Individuals with bipolar disorder and healthy siblings of people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder were overrepresented in creative professions. People with schizophrenia had no increased rate of overall creative professions compared with controls, but an increased rate in the subgroup of artistic occupations. Neither individuals with unipolar depression nor their siblings differed from controls regarding creative professions.
A familial cosegregation of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with creativity is suggested.
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