To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Congenital transmission of Chagas disease plays an important role in endemic countries because it is not a diagnosis that is encountered frequently in prenatal care. Due to limited information regarding congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Mexico, the present study aimed to investigate protozoan infectivity and modulation of immune responses in human placental explants infected with T. cruzi Ia Mexican strains. The Inc-5 strain showed increased infectivity and modulated IL-1β, IL-10 and TLR-4, decreasing their expression after 24 h of infection. Both strains (Inc-5 and Ninoa) stimulated the production of TNF-α and decreased IL-6 levels 96 h after infection. An important detachment of the syncytiotrophoblast caused by infection with T. cruzi was observed after 24 h of infection. In this study, ex vivo infection of human placental villi was performed to better understand interactions involving parasitic T. cruzi and human placental tissue. It was concluded that the strains of TcIa present parasitism in placental tissue, modulation of the innate immune system of the placenta, and cause intense detachment of the syncytiotrophoblast, a fact that may be more associated with abortion and premature birth events than the congenital transmission itself, justifying the low rate of this transmission mechanism by this genotype.
The aim of this Research Communication was to apply the data mining technique to classify which environmental factors have the potential to motivate dairy cows to access natural shade. We defined two different areas at the silvopastoral system: shaded and sunny. Environmental factors and the frequency that dairy cows used each area were measured during four days, for 8 h each day. The shaded areas were the most used by dairy cows and presented the lowest mean values of all environmental factors. Solar radiation was the environmental factor with most potential to classify the dairy cow's decision to access shaded areas. Data mining is a machine learning technique with great potential to characterize the influence of the thermal environment in the cows' decision at the pasture.
Despite its importance for carbon stocks accounting, belowground biomass (BGB) has seldom been measured due to the methodological complexity involved. In this study, we assess woody BGB and related carbon stocks, soil properties and human impact on two common suffrutex grasslands (Brachystegia- and Parinari grasslands) on the Angolan Central Plateau. Data on BGB was measured by direct destructive sampling. Soil samples were analysed for select key parameters. To investigate vegetation dynamics and human impact, we used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and fire data retrieved via Google Earth Engine. Mean belowground woody biomass of sandy Parinari grasslands was 17 t/ha and 44 t/ha in ferralitic Brachystegia grasslands of which 50% correspond to carbon stocks. As such, the BGB of Brachystegia grasslands almost equals the amount of aboveground biomass (AGB) of neighbouring miombo woodlands. Almost the entire woody BGB is located in the top 30 cm of the soil. Soils were extremely acid, showing a low nutrient availability. Both grassland types differed strongly in EVI and fire seasonality. The Parinari grasslands burnt almost twice as frequent as Brachystegia grasslands in a 10-year period. Our study emphasizes the high relevance of BGB in suffrutex grasslands for carbon stock accounting.
Environmental factors, size-related isotopic changes of the most abundant species and isotopic niche overlap were investigated using stable isotopes in order to evaluate spatial changes of fish trophic guilds in the Araruama Lagoon. Based on 440 muscle samples, 17 fish species were grouped into five trophic guilds. Mean salinity was above 40 at both sites sampled and a significant spatial difference was observed. The highest δ13C mean value was observed for an omnivorous species, whereas the lowest carbon signatures were found for the three fish species belonging to the planktivorous guild. Analysis of the carbon signature of fish species in lower trophic levels showed influence of salinity variation, whilst size appeared to play a role for others. A narrow δ15N difference was observed, but the piscivorous fish species showed the highest δ15N values. The Standard Ellipses Analysis (SEA) detected spatial differences and varying degrees of isotopic niche overlap among trophic guilds, but the percentages of most overlaps (<60%) suggest that, to some extent, the guilds had a unique isotopic niche space. These results are in agreement with data previously reported for the Araruama Lagoon, that found the same prey items with varying relative importance among the most abundant species. Further studies are necessary to understand how the interaction between salinity and other factors, such as migration patterns, changes in prey availability, changes in contribution of primary sources and changes in baseline isotopic signatures could affect the stable isotope signatures shown here.
Cervids represent a mammal group which plays an important role in the maintenance of ecological balance. Recent studies have highlighted the role of these species as reservoirs for several arthropods-borne pathogens. Globally, hemotropic mycoplasmas (haemoplasmas) are emerging or remerging bacteria that attach to red blood cells of several mammals species causing hemolytic anaemia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and assess the phylogenetic positioning of Mycoplasma ovis in free-ranging deer from Brazil. Using a polymerase chain reaction targeting the 16S rRNA region, 18 (40%) out of 45 sampled deer were positive to M. ovis. Among the nine sequences analysed, four distinct genotypes were identified. The sequences detected in the present study were closely related to sequences previously identified in deer from Brazil and the USA. On the other hand, the Neighbour-Net network analysis showed that the human-associated M. ovis genotypes were related to genotypes detected in sheep and goats. The present study shows, for the first time, the occurrence of M. ovis in Mazama gouazoubira and Mazama bororo deer species, expanding the knowledge on the hosts harbouring this haemoplasma species. Once several deer species have your population in decline, additional studies are needed to evaluate the pathogenicity of M. ovis among deer populations around the world and assess its potential as reservoir hosts to human infections.
In order to conserve species exploited by trafficking, governmental actions should be directed to source areas, aiming to reduce or eliminate illegal and indiscriminate trapping. However, few studies have diagnosed and prioritized the most relevant drivers of the illegal capture of wild animals. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the main drivers of the illegal capture of wild birds in Brazil. A literature review and a multivariate modelling approach indicated the economic, social and environmental factors that display the greatest influence in boosting this illicit activity worldwide. Our search revealed seven drivers of illegal wildlife capture addressed by researchers in studies carried out in source countries. This is the first broad-scale study in Brazil showing that higher native vegetation coverage and greater proximity to protected areas were the main drivers of illegal wild bird capture for trafficking. Thus, actions that aim to protect species threatened by trafficking require a multidisciplinary approach encompassing social, economic and environmental factors.
This study assessed the effects of diet supplementation with industrial processing by-products of acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C.), cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) and guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit on the intestinal health and lipid metabolism of female Wistar rats with diet-induced dyslipidaemia. Female rats were randomly divided into five groups: healthy control, dyslipidaemic control and dyslipidaemic experimental receiving acerola, cashew or guava processing by-products. Fruit processing by-products were administered (400 mg/kg body weight) via orogastric administration for 28 consecutive days. Acerola, cashew and guava by-products caused body weight reduction (3·42, 3·08 and 5·20 %, respectively) in dyslipidaemic female rats. Dyslipidaemic female rats receiving fruit by-products, especially from acerola, presented decreased faecal pH, visceral fat, liver fat and serum lipid levels, as well as increased faecal moisture, faecal fat excretion, faecal Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. counts and amounts of organic acids in faeces. Administration of the tested fruit processing by-products protected colon and liver from tissue damage (e.g. destruction of liver and colon cells and increased fat deposition in hepatocytes) induced by dyslipidaemic diet. Dietary fibres and phenolic compounds in tested fruit by-products may be associated with these positive effects. The industrial fruit processing by-products studied, mainly from acerola, exert functional properties that could enable their use to protect the harmful effects on intestinal health and lipid metabolism caused by dyslipidaemic diet.
Protected areas (PAs) are vital for the conservation of Brazil's biodiversity (Barber et al.2014). However, they are at risk of a downgrade in legal status due to economic pressures on natural resources (Bernard et al.2014; De Marques & Perez 2014; Pack et al.2016). Mining is one of the most urgent environmental threats in Brazil (Ferreira et al.2014; El Bizri et al.2016), with plans in place for a 10-fold increase in the number of mining projects in c. 8 years. If all were developed, the Brazilian territory occupied by mining would increase 23-fold in the near future. Currently, 12 697 projects covering 98 × 105 ha are planned within PAs. Licensing and exploitation of 53% of this land will depend on the approval of three bills that intend to authorize mining in areas where it was formerly forbidden. Here, we analyse the potential consequences of the approval of these new policies for conservation.
Non-institutionalized dependent older adults present high morbidity and mortality, demand care from their families, and consume primary health care resources. To expand knowledge about this group, we conducted a population-based one-year prospective cohort study of 130 non-institutionalized dependent older persons (age 60 and older), stratified according to baseline mobility: independent walking (group A), use of walking aids (group B), and bedridden or confined to a wheelchair (group C). The outcomes analysed were death, hospitalization, and mobility disability. Total mortality was 8.5 per cent (p = .05). Overall hospitalization rate was 34.6 per cent; the main causes were stroke and pneumonia. After one year, there was a decline in the proportion of subjects classified as independent walking (57% vs. 43%; p = .03). We conclude that there was a high rate of mortality and hospitalization in this group of dependent older people, and an increase in disability after a one-year follow-up.
This chapter presents a case study of a 3-month-old male who had an uncomplicated term delivery presented for repair of craniosynostosis. Premedication was avoided and a peripheral intravenous catheter was started because of the young age, presence of mid-facial hypoplasia, and concern regarding potential problems with ventilation and intubation. Probably the most challenging part of the anesthetic management of craniosynostosis repair is the significant blood loss and frequent rate of blood product transfusion. Craniosynostosis repair presents a number of challenges to the anesthesiologist: (1) small size of the patients; (2) significant and often unavoidable blood loss; (3) need for intraoperative transfusion of blood products; and (4) associated anomalies including airway problems and obstructive sleep apnea. All of these potential complications call for careful preoperative and intraoperative planning, meticulous attention to intravascular volume status and hemodynamic stability as well as maintenance of normothermia.
Pseudo-simulated body fluids (SBFs) were used in in vitro experiments to promote chitosan porous membrane calcification. Common SBFs, which had concentrations of phosphate or calcium ions doubled, were so named because they do not replicate, by rigor, a genuine body fluid ion concentration. The objective of using such calcification fluids was to study the influence of phosphate and calcium excess in solution on mineralization deposit characteristics. SEM-EDS analyses showed that morphology and composition of deposits varies depending on which ion (phosphate or calcium) is in excess; x-ray diffractograms show that deposits are poorly crystalline (like biological apatites) but still show better crystallinity in deposits generated from P-rich SBF. This result, added to previous ones [such as those reported by Beppu and Santana Mater. Res.5, 47 (2002)] where a difference in the interconnectivity of the inorganic and organic (matrix) phases was stressed, suggests different deposition processes for each situation.
Detection of colonized patients is important for implementing control measures for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Laboratory detection of MRSA carriers is increased by the use of selective screening media, helping control dissemination of such organisms.
To evaluate three different media, including selective and nonselective media, in the detection of MRSA from clinical specimens of patients of an intensive care unit (ICU).
Adult patients in the ICU of the Hospital Mae de Deus, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
A total of 224 specimens were obtained from the nares of patients and plated on blood agar, mannitol sait agar containing 2 μg/mL of oxacillin (MSAO), and oxacillin resistance screening agar base (ORSAB). The presence of MRSA was investigated in typical colonies growing on the three types of media. Discrepant results were resolved by detection of the mecA gene by polymerase chain reaction and the modified penicillin binding protein known as PBP2'.
MRSA was detected in 32 (14.3%) of 224 specimens. Blood agar, MSAO, and ORSAB detected MRSA in 17, 31, and 28 specimens, respectively. After the coagulase test, no false resistance was observed.
MSAO and ORSAB performed equivalently in the detection of MRSA of colonized patients and require a single supplementary test (coagulase) to confirm MRSA.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.