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Product customization aims to consider individual customers preferences in the design of new products, in order to directly involve them in the product development process and to maximize their satisfaction. It can be considered a key competitive factor and a “hot topic” in several industrial sectors, including luxury apparel goods and high-end footwear products. However, currently the design and manufacturing of customized shoes are carried out through artisanal and non-standardized processes, based on the individual expertise of operators.
The objective of this study is to define an innovative framework to support the different processes affected by customization. This framework is enabled by different digital technologies, as CAD-based tools, virtual/augmented reality systems, etc., opportunely integrated in the product development process. The main benefits related to the framework implementation in real industrial contexts are an increase of flexibility, the repeatability of processes, a higher efficiency in information exchange, a more effective involvement of final customers, and, as a consequence, the reduction of time to market and production costs for tailor-made shoes.
In Italy, the cohorts of women who were offered Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in 2007/08 will reach the age for cervical cancer (CC) screening from 2017. According to the National Prevention Plan 2014–18, HPV-based screening must be implemented for women ≥30 years old, following the Italian Health Technology Assessment (HTA) report recommendations (1). The simultaneous shift from cytology-based screening to HPV test-based screening gives the opportunity for unprecedented reorganisation of CC prevention.
The National Screening Monitoring Centre and the Italian Group for Cervical Screening, following a commitment by the Italian the Ministry of Health (MoH), identified the consensus conference as the most suitable method for addressing this topic. The objective was defining the best screening methods in girls vaccinated against HPV and the knowledge needs for defining evidence-based screening strategies. During the consensus celebration (24 November 2015) a jury made recommendations about questions and proposals formulated by a panel of experts representative of Italian scientific societies involved in CC prevention and based on systematic reviews (2).
The jury considered changing the screening protocols for girls vaccinated in their 12th year as appropriate. Tailored screening protocols based on vaccination status could be replaced by “one size fits all” protocols only when a herd immunity effect has been reached. Vaccinated women should start screening at age 30, instead of 25, with the HPV test. Furthermore, there is a strong rationale for applying longer intervals for re-screening HPV negative women than the currently recommended 5 years, but research is needed to determine the optimal screening time points. For non-vaccinated women and for women vaccinated in their 15th year or later, the current protocol should be kept.
As further action, in 2016 the Ministry of Health funded a Health Technology Assessment program of the new screening protocol proposed by the consensus conference and a cohort study for determining a safe interval in vaccinated women.
Microstructural and morphological features of the layers forming integrated PTB7/PC71BM organic solar cells with Ca/Al cathode are studied. The effects of vacuum treatment on properties and durability were addressed using complementary approaches: time-resolved experiments revealing the structural evolution of the active layers under illumination were conducted combining the in situ energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXD) technique with atomic force microscopy (AFM); space-resolved characterization of the integrated devices was possible via high resolution X-ray diffraction, using a nano-focused synchrotron radiation X-ray beam to discriminate the device components. Active layers surface morphology is stable under illumination and PC71BM structural properties remain unaltered. PTB7 undergoes crystallinity depletion, mainly at the active layer/cathode interface. This effect is actually inhibited in the device submitted to vacuum treatment, proving that this procedure induces stabilization at the cathode’s buried interface, as verified by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Importantly, the protective role of the vacuum treatment results in a significant photovoltaic durability enhancement.
This study investigated the emission of subaquatic noise from recreational tourism motorboats, schooners and a sea-bottom mounted water pump. Analyses demonstrated alterations in several whistle (IF: t = 2.42, P = 0.015; FF: t = −2.22, P = 0.025) and calls patterns (MIF: t = −3.13, P = 0.001; MAF: t = −3.49, P = 0.0005; FD: t = −2.21, P = 0.027; D: t = 2.89, P = 0.004), caused primarily by motorboats. Duration of clicks was also modified (D: t = −3.85, P = 0.0001), mainly by the water pump. The frequency range of all noises (0.43–35.8 kHz) overlaps that used by dolphins (1–48 kHz), causing sound emissions changes, with a considerable increase in number of whistles and a reduction in clicks trains. These changes may be a strategy developed by these dolphins to overcome the noise band. Mitigation measures, such as boating regulations and environmental education for the local community, boaters and tourists are needed to conserve the species. The Guiana dolphin population is apparently already suffering, evidenced by diminished residence time and reduced number of individuals entering the inlet during the presence of pleasure craft.
Archaeological surface surveys carried out near Salve in southern Italy led to the identification of about 90 stone mounds spread over an area of about 100 ha. Systematic archaeological investigations allowed to identify the mounds as funeral structures with some having megalithic features. In the necropolis, both the inhumation and cremation rituals are evident, in some cases within the same mound. This article presents the results of an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating campaign carried out on different kinds of samples recovered from several structures: unburned and cremated bones, charcoals, and organic residues extracted from pottery sherds. The results allowed to assess the chronology of the site and to shed new light on the different funeral practices in Copper Age southern Italy.
FERMI, the seeded free electron laser (FEL) in operation in Italy, is providing the User Community with unique fully coherent radiation, in the wavelength range 100–4 nm. FERMI is the first FEL fully synchronized by means of optical fibers. The optical timing system ensures an ultra-stable phase reference to its distributed clients. Several femtosecond longitudinal diagnostics verify the achieved performance; the bunch length monitor (BLM) and the bunch arrival monitor (BAM) will be presented in this paper. Feedback systems play a crucial role to guarantee the needed long-term electron beam stability. A real-time infrastructure allows shot-to-shot communication between front-end computers and the servers. Orbit feedbacks are useful in machine tuning, whereas longitudinal feedbacks control electron energy, compression and arrival time. A flexible software framework allows a rapid implementation of heterogeneous multi-input–multi-output (MIMO) longitudinal loops simply by selecting the appropriate sensors and actuators.
Although it is largely assumed that shark predation and predation risk are unimportant to large cetaceans, whales can make up large portions of the diets of some shark species. We investigated interactions between sharks and cetaceans in the Abrolhos Bank (16°40′ to 19°40′S), off the eastern coast of Brazil, including scavenging and predation attempts on living humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). In order to determine the frequency of shark bites on cetaceans, both living and postmortem, we used carcasses discovered along the coast of Abrolhos Bank between 2001 and 2010 and photographs of living cetaceans during systematic and opportunistic visual surveys from 2004 to 2009. We analysed a total of 221 cetacean carcasses, of which 150 (67.8%) were humpback whales. Large sharks had fed on 22.3% (35 of 150) of humpback whales carcasses, and 20.8% (10 of 48) of carcasses of other species. Only three living humpback whales (<1%) had bite scars from large sharks, suggesting that they at least occasionally target living humpbacks. Cookiecutter shark bite marks also were observed on both dead and living cetaceans, with numerous living humpbacks showing multiple bites. The abundance of humpback whale carcasses available over the Abrolhos Bank, mainly during the humpback breeding season, may be an important component of shark diets seasonally. Further work is needed to better understand the frequency of shark attacks on mysticetes, potential costs of sublethal injuries, and importance of whales to shark diets.
We present some recent results of a systematic study regarding polyaniline-based nanocomposites with detonation nanodiamond as guest component. The peculiar properties of such crystalline nanomaterial not only help in improving the mechanical and thermal properties of the host polymeric matrix, but also influence polymerization mechanism, modifying the morphological features of the polymers. Induced by the nanodiamond presence, the final nanocomposites show a prominent arrangement of polymer segments into tubular forms and a subsequent structural organization suitable for many technological applications.
Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) migrate between their feeding grounds, located in high latitudes, and their breeding grounds, located in low latitudes, exhibiting certain levels of site fidelity to their migratory destinations. The residence time, also known as occupancy rate, can be defined as the minimum number of days that those individuals remained in the same area. In this paper, site fidelity and residence time of humpback whales that breed off the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil were investigated. Data were collected between 2000 and 2009 on-board research cruises and whale watching vessels. This paper also studies possible differences between males and females with respect to site fidelity off the Brazilian coast, using data collected since 1989. A total of 841 whales were photo-identified. The vast majority of the whales (96%, N = 809) were seen only once in the studied area, while 4% (32 individuals) were seen twice. Most of the resights occurred within the same season (72%, N = 23), while 9 resights (28%) occurred in different years. None of the individuals were seen more than twice. The average site fidelity rate was 1% and the occupancy rate varied from one up to 21 days (mean = 5.3; SD = 5.4, N = 23).
The present work brings information about the first sightings of the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, in the oceanic island of Trindade, 1140 km off the Brazilian coast. Nine days of opportunistic boat surveys were performed between December 2009 and March 2010, totalling 54 hours of sampling effort. Three sightings were obtained of the bottlenose dolphin, varying from 1 single animal to a group with 10 dolphins, including calves. One group was observed and filmed underwater. Sighting depth varied from 5 to 35 m and distance from the coast was registered between 70 to 300 m. Comparing our results with other studies in the Brazilian oceanic islands shows similarities in the location of the sightings as well the reported group size and the presence of calves suggesting that bottlenose dolphins may be using these environments to socialize and take care of the young dolphins. Because the oceanic islands constitute fragile and isolated ecosystems it is crucial to have a better understanding of the conservation of their marine life, including top predator animals such as the bottlenose dolphins.
Aims – The Diagnostic Interview for Psychoses (DIP) is a comprehensive interview schedule for psychotic disorders, linked to the OPCRIT diagnostic algorithm, bridging the gap between fully structured, lay-administered schedules and semistructured, psychiatrist-administered interviews. Here we describe the validity, reliability and applications of the Italian version of the DIP. Methods – The interview was translated into Italian and its content validity tested by back translation. Sixty patients, drawn from among those who contacted the South-Verona Community Mental Health Service, were included in the study. Each patient was first assessed independently by two raters, one of whom conducted the interview, while the other assumed the role of observer. Subsequently (median: 89 days), 44 of these patients were re-interviewed by a third rater, who made an independent assessment. Diagnostic validity was assessed in 18 cases, interviewed with the DIP and using the SCAN as ‘gold standard. Results – The mean duration of the interview was 37 minutes for the inter-rater interviews and 39 minutes for the retest interviews. Good to excellent inter-rater reliability was demonstrated for both ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnoses, while in the test-retest reliability pairwise agreement was high for half of the items. Diagnostic validity was good, with twelve out of the 18 DIP-OPCRIT diagnoses (67%) matching the SCAN diagnosis. Conclusions – Overall, the results support the reliability and validity of the Italian translation of the DIP. The Italian version will be useful both in routine practice to establish standard reference diagnoses of psychosis and in the research field, where it can be used by academic researchers in clinical trials and epidemiological studies.
The large majority of cetacean interspecific studies report only on dolphin interactions, while studies on interactions between odontocete and mysticete are less common. The present work aims to report on sightings of cetacean interactions, during the breeding season of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), along 370 km of the Bahia State, north-eastern Brazil, addressing aspects of cetacean distribution and behaviour. During 7 seasons (2000–2006), a total of 230 research cruises were performed, in which 38 events of interactions among humpback whales and other cetaceans (Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Peponocephala electra and Balaenoptera acutorostrata) were observed, plus another 5 encounters without the whale's presence, including T. truncatus, S. bredanensis, P. electra, Stenella clymene and Stenella attenuata. Our results confirm the occurrence of multiple cetacean species in the Bahia State, being the first study in the world to report on a large range of interactions involving another 4 cetacean species, grouped with up to 3 mixed species per sighting, with humpback whales in their annual breeding ground.
The aim of this work is to describe the repertoire of calls utilized by the spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) in the southern Atlantic Ocean. We measured four acoustic parameters of the fundamental frequency of each call: (i) duration; (ii) frequency amplitude; (iii) minimum frequency; and (iv) maximum frequency. We also classified calls by their shape contour by visual inspection of the spectrograms. The obtained values for call duration were 0.046 to 2.08 seconds (mean 0.433, standard deviation (SD) 0.433), amplitude of 0.13 to 2.01 kHz (mean of 0.36, SD 0.29), minimum frequency of 0.22 to 1.80 (mean 0.55, SD 0.29), maximum frequency of 0.46 to 7.50 (mean 1.00, SD 0.89). We classified 73 calls by spectral contour, identifying six basic types of discernible calls, showing heterogeneity among the call types, with C1, C2 and C3 calls presenting higher frequencies, 21, 30 and 23%, respectively. We found that the calls of S. longirostris in the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago are more diverse and complex than previously recognized for spinner dolphins and further studies worldwide can reinforce the broad use of this sound for the species repertoire.
We report the occurrence of a lone humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) calf inside Baía de Todos os Santos, north-eastern Brazil, encountered swimming near the shore at a busy beach of the city of Salvador. The calf was monitored for over six hours during which time it was photographed performing an unusual behaviour, interpreted by the authors as a sign of stress and disorientation. One week later, a dead humpback whale calf was found 14 km north-east, on the island of Itaparica. Due to the similar size and the oceanographic currents of the area, we considered it to be the same animal. Finally, we discuss considerations to improve conditions for the rescue of cetaceans in the future.
Between April 2002 and April 2005, 210 estuarine dolphin groups were sighted, with 58 animals individually identified. Fifteen dolphins were photo-identified just once, while only two animals were sighted in 15 different months. Some individuals showed long-term residence (more than 3 y). Residence rates showed heterogeneity in the dolphin's permanence of the estuary, with 60% of the individuals with low numbers (<10) and only 7% showing high values for residence (maximum=45.9). Continued resightings of some dolphins support the regular use of the study area by the animals, despite some individuals that, after a long time without resightings were registered again. Individual range analysis showed that dolphins shared the same common area, the Caravelas River Estuary. A marked fluctuation in the number of photo-identified dolphins was observed in the study area, revealed by the high number of individuals with just a few resightings. The majority of the dolphins (60%) present a yearly residence pattern, as observed in other areas, suggesting that a few individuals show high fidelity for the area, while many other dolphins move constantly between different areas for unknown reasons.
Aim — To assess the association between socio-demographic characteristics and community attitudes towards mentally ill people. Method — We assessed a sample of 280 subjects, stratified for sex and age, which has identified using the electoral registers of Brescia. A letter was sent to everyone in order to introduce the future potential study participant to the topics of the public attitudes towards mental illness and it included an invitation to take part in the study. After, 280 subjects were contacted by telephone. Finally, 174 persons, who expressed their willingness to collaborate, were visited by a team of four trained interviewers. The instruments used were: a semi-structured interview; the Community Attitudes to the Mentally III (CAMI) inven-tory, which is composed by 40 statements, concerning the degree of acceptance of mental health services and mentally ill patients in the community; and the Fear and Behavioural Intentions (FABI) inventory, which is composed by 10 items, concerning fears and behavioural intentions towards mentally ill people. 106 subjects refused to participate. Results — Factor analysis of the CAMI revealed three components Physical distance and fear, Social isolation and Social responsibility and tolerance. Factor 1 is associated with: people >61 years old; people being divorced/widowed/living separated; people who haven't participated in social or volunteer activities. Factor 2 is associated with: people > 41 years old; people being schooled at a level that's higher than elementary level; unemployed people. Factor 3 doesn't present any associations. Conclusions — The results of this study outline the need to: a) promote interventions focused to improve the general attitude towards people with mental illness; b) to favour specific actions in order to prevent or eliminate prejudices in subgroups of the population.
Declaration of Interest: in the last two years the authors have been paid by the IRCCS Centra San Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli in Brescia (Italy), as employees and free professionals.
Aims – The aim of the present work is to analyse employers' and employees' attitudes towards the job integration of people with mental illness or disability and to highlight the socio-demographic and organizational characteristic that are more significantly associated with such attitudes. Method – We performed PsycINFO, AskERIC and Medline searches for studies published from 1961 to 2002, with key words such as attitudes, stigma, schizophrenia, mental illness, disability, employers, employees, co-workers and supported employment. Results – Our review of the literature showed that the possibility for people with severe mental illness or disability to enter job market is limited by the discriminating attitudes of employers. The socio-demographic and organizational characteristics, which are more significantly associated with employers' more positive attitudes, are: dimension of the company, previous positive contact with people with disability and employers' high educational level. Conclusions – Such information could be useful to identify and, perhaps, select those companies, which can be predicted as more likely to accept people with mental disorders as part of their work force; they could also be used to train job applicants to improve their social skills. Finally such information could be used to plan specific programs to modify attitudes of employees and employers.
Declaration of Interests
in the last two years, the authors have been paid by the IRCCS Centro San Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli in Brescia (Italy), either as employees, or through research assistantships, or as free professionals.