Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression was used as a marker to study the dopaminergic cells in the Cebus monkey retina. Two types of dopaminergic cells were identified by cell body size and location, level of arborization in the inner plexiform layer, and amount of immunolabeling. Type 1 cells displayed intense immunoreactivity and larger somata (12–24 μm) located in the inner nuclear layer or ganglion cell layer, whereas type 2 had smaller cell bodies (8–14 μm) found either in the inner plexiform layer or ganglion cell layer and were more faintly labeled. Interplexiform cells were characterized as type 1 dopaminergic cells. Immunoreactive axon-like processes were seen in the nerve fiber layer, and a net of fibers was visible in the foveal pit and in the extreme periphery of the retina. The population of TH+ cells was most numerous in the temporal superior quadrant and its density peaked at 1–2 mm from the fovea. Type 1 TH+ cells were more numerous than type 2 cells at any eccentricity. Along the horizontal meridian, type 1 cell density was slightly higher in temporal (29 cells/mm2) than in nasal (25 cells/mm2) retina, while type 2 cells had a homogeneous distribution (4.5 cells/mm2). Along the vertical meridian, type 1 cells reached lower peak density (average 17.7 cells/mm2) in the inferior retina (central 4 mm), compared to the superior portion (23.7 cells/mm2). Type 2 cell density varied from 4.5 cells/mm2 in the superior region to 9.4 cells/mm2 in the inferior region. The spatial density of the two cell types varied approximately inversely while the total density of TH+ cells was virtually constant across the retina. No correlation between dopaminergic cells and rod distribution was found. However, we suggest that dopaminergic cells could have a role in mesopic and/or photopic vision in this species, since TH+ fibers are present in cone-dominated regions like the foveola and extreme nasal Periphery.