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This study analyzes the relationship between the two intrapersonal perfectionism dimensions (i.e., Self-Oriented Perfectionism-Critical, SOP-C, and Self-Oriented Perfectionism-Strivings, SOP-S) and the components of aggressive behavior (cognitive, emotional and motor) in a sample of 804 (48.3% females) Spanish students between the ages of 8 and 11 (M = 9.57; DE = 1.12). The Spanish versions of the SOP-C and SOP-S subscales of the Child/Adolescent Perfectionism Scale and the Aggression Questionnaire were used. Students with high SOP-C scored significantly higher (p < .001) than their peers with low SOP-C on all components of aggressive behavior. The magnitude of these differences (Cohen’s d index) ranged from .40 to .59. In contrast, non-significant statistical differences were found between students with high and low SOP-S. Moreover, logistic regression analysis revealed that SOP-C significantly and positively predicted high Hostility, Anger and Physical and Verbal Aggression, whereas none of these components were significantly predicted by SOP-S (95% CI). Results are discussed, taking into account the debate on the conceptualization and nature of intrapersonal perfectionism.
A 6–18 GHz high-power amplifier (HPA) design in GaN on SiC technology is presented. This power amplifier consists of a two-stage corporate amplifier with two and four transistors, respectively. It has been fabricated on UMS using their 0.25 µm gate length process, GH25. A study of the suitable attachment method and measurement on wafer and on jig are detailed. This HPA exhibits an averaged output power of 39.2 dBm with a mean gain of 11 dB in saturation and a 24.5% maximum power added efficiency in pulse mode operation with a duty cycle of 10% with a 25 µs pulse width.
This study examined (1) the association of dietary energy density from solid (EDS) and solid plus liquids (EDSL) with adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors (CRF) in children with overweight and obesity, (2) the effect of under-reporting on the mentioned associations and (3) whether the association between ED and body composition and CRF is influenced by levels of physical activity. In a cross-sectional design, 208 overweight and obese children (8–12-year-old; 111 boys) completed two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. ED was calculated using two different approaches: EDS and EDSL. Under-reporters were determined with the Goldberg method. Body composition, anthropometry and fasting blood sample measurements were performed. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was registered with accelerometers (7-d-register). Linear regressions were performed to evaluate the association of ED with the previously mentioned variables. Neither EDS nor EDSL were associated with body composition or CRF. However, when under-reporters were excluded, EDS was positively associated with BMI (P=0·019), body fat percentage (P=0·005), abdominal fat (P=0·008) and fat mass index (P=0·018), while EDSL was positively associated with body fat percentage (P=0·008) and fat mass index (P=0·026). When stratifying the group according to physical activity recommendations, the aforementioned associations were only maintained for non-compliers. Cluster analysis showed that the low-ED and high-MVPA group presented the healthiest profile for all adiposity and CRF. These findings could partly explain inconsistencies in literature, as we found that different ED calculations entail distinct results. Physical activity levels and excluding under-reporters greatly influence the associations between ED and adiposity in children with overweight and obesity.
The neurocognitive trajectory in bipolar disorder (BD) is variable, with controversial findings, and most evidence come from cross-sectional studies. We aimed to examine the course of neurocognitive functioning in a sample of euthymic BD patients in comparison with a control group during a 5-year follow-up.
Ninety-nine euthymic bipolar patients and 40 healthy controls were assessed using a comprehensive neurocognitive battery (six neurocognitive domains) at baseline (T1) and then at 5-year follow-up (T2) in a longitudinal study.
No evidence of a progression in neurocognitive dysfunction was found either in cognitive composite index or in any of the neurocognitive domains for the whole cohort. However, there was a negative correlation between number of manic episodes and hospitalisations due to manic episodes and change in neurocognitive composite index (NCI) during the follow-up. Moreover, patients with higher number of manic and hypomanic episodes have a greater decrease in NCI, working memory and visual memory. History of psychotic symptoms was not related to the trajectory of neurocognitive impairment.
Our results suggest that, although the progression of cognitive decline is not a general rule in BD, BD patients who have a greater number of manic or hypomanic episodes may constitute a subgroup characterised by the progression of neurocognitive impairment. Prevention of manic and hypomanic episodes could have a positive impact on the trajectory of cognitive function.
In this Research Communication we assessed factors affecting colostrum quality of dairy Lacaune ewes using the Brix-refractometer. Colostrum from 536 lambings from one commercial intensive dairy Lacaune farm were analysed for the following factors with potential influence in colostrum quality: (1) ewe parity (n = 84–132), (2) length of previous dry period (PDP) (n = 23–214), (3) age at first lambing (AFL) of primiparous ewes (n = 9–88), (4) lambing season (n = 192 or 344), and (5) year (2011–2013, n = 142–203). Parity significantly affected colostrum quality, with primiparous ewes showing the highest Brix refractometer values (22·6 ± 5·6%, P < 0·0001), though values were similar among multiparous ewes. PDP length also significantly affected colostrum quality: ewes with the shortest PDP showed the worst quality (16·8 ± 4·2%, P < 0·0001), with quality gradually rising with PDP length. Colostrum quality was significantly higher in 2011 (21·0 ± 5·2%) than in 2012 or 2013 (P < 0·0001); this likely reflects the several-fold greater proportion of animals with long PDP in 2011. In contrast, neither AFL nor lambing season significantly affected colostrum quality. These results suggest that parity and PDP length can substantially affect ovine colostrum quality of dairy ewes under intensive management conditions and they further show the usefulness of the Brix refractometer for providing a rough estimation of colostrum quality on-farm. However, further studies are needed to determine a validated cut-off Brix value for identifying good-quality colostra in ovine species.
The synthesis and antiprotozoal activity of some simple dialkyl pyrazole-3,5-dicarboxylates (compounds 2–6) and their sodium salts (pyrazolates) (compounds 7–9) against Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis are reported. In most cases the studied compounds showed, especially against the clinically significant amastigote forms, in vitro activities higher than those of the reference drugs (benznidazole for T. cruzi and glucantime for Leishmania spp.); furthermore, the low non-specific cytotoxicities against Vero cells and macrophages shown by these compounds led to good selectivity indexes, which are 8–72 times higher for T. cruzi amastigotes and 15–113 times higher for Leishmania spp. amastigotes than those of the respective reference drugs. The high efficiency of diethyl ester 3 and its sodium salt 8 against the mentioned protozoa was confirmed by further in vitro assays on infection rates and by an additional in vivo study in a murine model of acute and chronic Chagas disease. The inhibitory capacity of compounds 3 and 8 on the essential iron superoxide dismutase of the aforementioned parasites may be related to the observed anti-trypanosomatid activity. The low acute toxicity of compounds 3 and 8 in mice is also reported in this article.
This Research Communication reports interferences related to the administration of ivermectin in lactating dairy goats on the response of microbial tests for screening antibiotics in milk. Twenty-eight Murciano-Granadina goats, naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. caprae, were treated with a subcutaneous injection of ivermectin (200 µg/kg b.w.). To prevent re-infestation, a second dose was applied 7 d later. Individual milk samples were collected, daily, up to 15 d post-treatment. Milk samples were analysed by microbial inhibitor tests (BRT MRL, Delvotest SP-NT MCS and Eclipse 100) and ivermectin residues were quantified by HPLC. A large number of positive results were obtained for all microbial tests, especially on the first day after treatment (BRT MRL = 46·4%; Delvotest SP-NT MCS = 14·3%; and Eclipse 100 = 17·8%). However, the highest concentration of drug residues in milk (24·3 ng/ml) was detected on the tenth day after treatment, when positive outcomes were relatively lower (BRT MRL = 17·8%; Delvotest SP-NT MCS = 10·7%; and Eclipse 100 = 7·4%). Results herein suggest that factors related to the ivermectin treatment other than drug residues in milk, or alterations produced by the parasitic disease itself affecting the immune response of animals, could be the cause of false-positive results in microbial tests. It can be concluded that the application of ivermectin in dairy goats infested with sarcoptes mange during lactation produces persistent drug residues in milk, and could also cause false-positive results in microbial inhibitor tests for screening antibiotics.
The phenotypic activity of two 5-nitroindazolinones, i.e. 2-benzyl-1-propyl (22) and 2-benzyl-1-butyl (24) derivatives, previously proposed as anti-Trypanosoma cruzi prototypes, was presently assayed on bloodstream trypomastigotes (BT) of the moderately drug-resistant Y strain. Further exploration of putative targets and cellular mechanisms involved in their activity was also carried out. Therefore, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution respirometry and flow cytometry procedures were performed on BT treated for up to 24 h with the respective EC50 value of each derivative. Results demonstrated that although 22 and 24 were not as active as benznidazole in this in vitro assay on BT, both compounds triggered important damages in T. cruzi that lead to the parasite death. Ultrastructural alterations included shedding events, detachment of plasma membrane and nuclear envelope, loss of mitochondrial integrity, besides the occurrence of a large number of intracellular vesicles and profiles of endoplasmic reticulum surrounding cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondrion. Moreover, both derivatives affected mitochondrion leading to this organelle dysfunction, as reflected by the inhibition in oxygen consumption and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Altogether, the findings exposed in the present study propose autophagic processes and mitochondrial machinery as part of the mode of action of both 5-nitroindazolinones 22 and 24 on T. cruzi trypomastigotes.
Some studies have concluded there is a relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behaviors that prevent HIV transmission. This paper presents the construction and validation of the latex barrier use self-efficacy scale (LBSS), which 480 participants filled out. Exploratory factor analysis yielded two components: positive expectations of self-efficacy (ES-POS) and negative expectations of self-efficacy (ES-NEG), which together accounted for 65.59% of total variance. That structure was later verified through confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was .80 for the total scale, and .78 for each of the two factors. Moreover, the instrument had adequate convergent validity and was positively related with condom use self-efficacy, attitudes toward condom and latex barrier use, and ability to refuse sex if the partner refuses to use preventive methods. In conclusion, this instrument is a useful measure of self-efficacy in latex barrier use.
For optimal application of Nesidiocoris tenuis as a biological control agent, adequate field management and programmed mass rearing are essential. Mathematical models are useful tools for predicting the temperature-dependent developmental rate of the predator. In this study, the linear model and nonlinear models Logan type III, Lactin and Brière were estimated at constant temperatures and validated at alternating temperatures and under field conditions. N. tenuis achieved complete development from egg to adult at constant temperatures between 15 and 35°C with high survivorship (>80%) in the range 18–32°C. The total developmental time decreased from a maximum at 15°C (76.74 d) to a minimum at 33°C (12.67 d) and after that, increased to 35°C (13.98 d). Linear and nonlinear developmental models all had high accuracy (Ra2 >0.86). The maximum developmental rate was obtained between 31.9°C (Logan type III and Brière model for N1) and 35.6°C (for the egg stage in the Brière model). Optimal survival and the highest developmental rate fell within the range 27–30°C. The field validation revealed that the Logan type III and Lactin models offered the best predictions (95.0 and 94.5%, respectively). The data obtained on developmental time and mortality at different temperatures are useful for mass rearing this predator, and the developmental models are valuable for using N. tenuis as a biological control agent.
In the present study, the potential activity of two 5-nitroindazole derivatives previously proposed as suitable antichagasic prototypes was further evaluated on diverse Trypanosoma cruzi strains belonging to two discrete typing units (DTUs) frequently associated with human infection (i.e. DTUs TcII and TcVI). The trypanocidal profile that both 2-benzyl-1-propyl (22) and 2-benzyl-1-butyl (24) derivatives achieved on Tulahuen amastigotes (IC50 = 3·56 ± 0·99 and 6·31 ± 1·04 µm, respectively) correlates with that of formerly obtained on CL Brener, corroborating an outstanding activity on DTU TcVI parasites. Moreover, a sequential screening on extracellular and intracellular stages of T. cruzi Y (DTU TcII) demonstrated also the effectiveness of 22 and 24 over this strain on a similar range of activity (IC50 epimastigotes = 3·55 ± 0·47 and 7·92 ± 1·63 µm, IC50 amastigotes = 2·80 ± 0·46 and 9·02 ± 5·26 µm, respectively). These results, supported by a lack of toxicity registered over either L929 fibroblasts or primary cultures of cardiomyocytes, confirm that 5-nitroindazolinones 22 and 24 display great selectivity on both drug-sensitive (CL and Tulahuen) and drug-moderately resistant (Y) T. cruzi strains, and therefore, represent an important outcome in the research of Chagas disease chemotherapy.
Little is known about the clustering patterns of lifestyle behaviours in adult populations. We explored clusters in multiple lifestyle behaviours including physical activity (PA), smoking, alcohol use and eating habits in a sample of adult population. A cross-sectional and multi-centre study was performed with six participating groups distributed throughout Spain. Participants (n 1327) were part of the Lifestyles and Endothelial Dysfunction (EVIDENT) study and were aged between 20 and 80 years. The lifestyle and cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors were analysed using a clustering method based on the HJ-biplot coordinates to understand the variables underlying these groupings. The following three clusters were identified. Cluster 1: unhealthy, 677 subjects (51 %), with a slight majority of men (58·7 %), who were more sedentary and smokers with higher consumption of whole-fat dairy products, bigger waist circumference as well as higher TAG levels, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and CVR. Cluster 2: healthy/PA, 265 subjects (20 %), including 24·0 % of males with high PA. Cluster 3: healthy/diet, including 29 % of the participants, with a higher consumption of olive oil, fish, fruits, nuts, vegetables and lower alcohol consumption. Using the unhealthy cluster as a reference, and after adjusting for age and sex, the multiple regression analysis showed that belonging to the healthy/PA cluster was associated with a lower waist circumference, body fat percentage, SBP and CVR. In summary, the three clusters were identified according to lifestyles. The ‘unhealthy’ cluster had the least favourable clinical parameters, the ‘healthy/PA’ cluster had good HDL-cholesterol levels and low SBP and the ‘healthy/diet’ cluster had lower LDL-cholesterol levels and clinical blood pressure.
Microwave filters and multiplexers commonly employ tuning screws to compensate for small errors occurring during the fabrication process. Nevertheless, the use of tuning screws has some disadvantages, because the small gaps between the screws and the holes are prone to create unwanted effects when dealing with high-power signals, especially for space applications, and are also the source of potential radiation losses. In this paper, an alternative technique to correct manufacturing deviations is presented, in which tuning screws are replaced by fixed metal insertions. In this case, the correction is made by means of designing new insertion pieces that will be able to correct those small deviations. In order to find the dimensions of the new pieces, a space-mapping technique is applied. For verification purposes, the method has been applied over a circular-waveguide dual-mode filter and later over a manifold multiplexer containing the same type of filters. However, the technique can be directly extended to other types of waveguide filters and multiplexers where tuning screws are also employed.
This study evaluated the perceptual priming in fourth grade primary school children using a word-fragment completion task. The children were classified into two categories according to their reading speed: high and low. Using several sub-scales of the WISC-IV, their working memory was measured, and their total IQ was estimated, in order to control for their effects on priming. The statistical analyses showed that children with high reading speed were significantly better at word-fragment completion and showed greater priming (p < .01); in other words, the prior processing of the words from which the fragments came produced a greater benefit in the performance of the word-fragment completion task. A regression model was developed to explain reading speed based on the following variables: perceptual priming, working memory and percentage of completed fragments belonging to words not previously processed (adjusted R2 = 0.64).
Prenatal losses are a complex problem. Pregnancy requires orchestrated communication between the embryo and the uterus that includes secretions from the embryo to signal pregnancy recognition and secretion and remodelling from the uterine epithelium. Most of these losses are characterized by asynchronization between embryo and uterus. To better understand possible causes, an analysis was conducted of gene expression of a set of transcripts related to maternal recognition and establishment of rabbit pregnancy (uteroglobin, SCGB1A1; integrin α1, ITGA1; interferon-γ, IFNG; vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF) in oviduct and uterine tissue at 16, 72 or 144 h post-ovulation and insemination. In the oviduct tissue, a significant decrease in the level of SCGB1A1 mRNA expression was observed from 144 h post-ovulation. In the case of ITGA1, the transcript abundance was initially lower, but mRNA expression increased significantly at 72 and 144 h post-ovulation. For IFNG, a huge decrease was observed from 16 to 72 h post-ovulation. Finally, no significant differences were observed in the VEGF transcript. For the endometrium, the results showed a significant decline in the level of SCGB1A1 mRNA expression from 16 to 144 h post-ovulation induction. The highest levels of ITGA1 transcript were detected at 144 h, followed by the 16 h group and lower at 72 h post-ovulation. For IFNG there were no significant differences among post-ovulation induction times. Finally, it was possible to observe that VEGF mRNA abundance was present at low levels at 16 h post-ovulation and remained low at 72 h, but increased at 144 h. The functional significance of these observations may provide new insights into the maternal role in prenatal losses.
Speleothem growth requires humid climates sufficiently warm to stimulate soil CO2 production by plants. We compile 283 U/Th dates on 21 stalagmites from six cave systems in the NW coast of Spain to evaluate if there are patterns in stalagmite growth that are evidence of climatic forcing. In the oldest stalagmites, from marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 7–5, growth persists through the glacial period. Hiatuses and major reductions in growth rate occur during extreme minima in summer insolation. Stalagmites active during the last interglaciation cease growth at the MIS 5–4 boundary (74 ka), when regional sea-surface temperature cooled significantly. During MIS 3, only two stalagmites grew; rates were highest between 50 and 60 ka during the maximum in summer insolation. One stalagmite grew briefly at 41 ka, 36.5 and 28.6 ka, all during warm phases of the Dansgaard–Oeschger cycles. A pronounced Holocene optimum in stalagmite growth occurs from 9 to 6 ka. The cessation of most growth by 4.1 ka, coincident with broad increases in aridity over the Mediterranean and areas influenced by the North African Monsoon, suggest that regions such as NW Spain, with dominant Atlantic moisture sources, also experienced increased aridity at this time.
The aim of this article was to ascertain nursing home residents' preconceptions about institutionalisation and analyse the causes and circumstances of and the justification for their admission. Grounded theory was used to design and analyse a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews in a theoretical sampling of 20 persons aged over 65 years with no cognitive impairment, and eight proxy informants of residents with cognitive impairment, institutionalised at a public nursing home in Spain. Our analysis revealed that preconceptions about nursing homes differ between residents and relatives, and are strongly influenced by the views held by society about such centres and by previous experiences. Regarding the causes and circumstances underlying nursing home placement, while the principal cause of institutionalisation among residents with cognitive impairment was the ineffectiveness of informal care systems, in the case of residents without cognitive impairment reasons tended to revolve around two main themes: social causes (loneliness, not be a burden to the others, household-related, comfort and absence of relatives in the vicinity), and limitations in physical functioning, with the former predominating. This study shows society's perception of such centres and the circumstances surrounding admission. These points of view are useful for analysing why informal care systems prove inadequate, and are crucial for designing programmes targeted at acceptance and successful adaptation to institutionalisation when this becomes necessary.
Within the ICD and DSM review processes there is growing debate on the
future classification and status of adjustment disorders, even though
evidence on this clinical entity is scant, particularly outside
To estimate the prevalence of adjustment disorders in primary care; to
explore whether there are differences between primary care patients with
adjustment disorders and those with other mental disorders; and to
describe the recognition and treatment of adjustment disorders by general
Participants were drawn from a cross-sectional survey of a representative
sample of 3815 patients from 77 primary healthcare centres in Catalonia.
The prevalence of current adjustment disorders and subtypes were assessed
face to face using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I
Disorders (SCID-I). Multilevel logistic regressions were conducted to
assess differences between adjustment disorders and other mental
disorders. Recognition and treatment of adjustment disorders by GPs were
assessed through a review of patients' computerised clinical
The prevalence of adjustment disorders was 2.94%. Patients with
adjustment disorders had higher mental quality-of-life scores than
patients with major depressive disorder but lower than patients without
mental disorder. Self-perceived stress was also higher in adjustment
disorders compared with those with anxiety disorders and those without
mental disorder. Recognition of adjustment disorders by GPs was low: only
2 of the 110 cases identified using the SCID-I were detected by the GP.
Among those with adjustment disorders, 37% had at least one psychotropic
Adjustment disorder shows a distinct profile as an intermediate category
between no mental disorder and affective disorders (depression and
Adparaproba gabrieli Carvalho is a phytophagous neotropical bug with a restricted distribution to southeast Brazil. The histology of the digestive system and that of the male and female reproductive tracts of A. gabrieli was studied. We found that the male had a pair of testes with two follicles per testis, two short vasa defentia that joined in a muscular ejaculatory duct with two pairs of well-developed accessory glands. The female has a meroistic telotrophic ovary with three ovarioles per ovary. There is a pair of sac-like salivary glands. The digestive tract, after the pharynx, has a long, thin oesophagus ending in a muscular proventriculus. The transition fore-midgut is marked by a stomodeal valve, and the midgut is the main organ with an anterior portion with columnar cells and an posterior one with flattened cells. The hindgut is short and differentiated in the ileum and rectum. The Malpighian tubules are also described and the phytophagous feeding habit of A. gabrieli is discussed.