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Bipolar disorder (BD) represents one of the most therapeutically complex psychiatric disorders. The development of a feasible comprehensive psychological approach to complement pharmacotherapy to improve its clinical management is required. The main objective of the present randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to test the efficacy of a novel adjunctive treatment entitled integrative approach in patients with BD, including: psychoeducation, mindfulness training, and functional remediation.
This is a parallel two-armed, rater-blind RCT of an integrative approach plus treatment as usual (TAU), v. TAU alone. Participants were recruited at the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona and randomized to one of the two conditions. They were assessed at baseline and after finishing the intervention. The main outcome variable included changes in psychosocial functioning assessed through the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST).
After finishing the treatment, the repeated-measures analyses revealed a significant group × time interaction in favor of the patients who received the integrative approach (n = 28) compared to the TAU group (n = 37) (Pillai's trace = 0.10; F(1,57) = 6.9; p = 0.01), improving the functional outcome. Significant effects were also found in two out of the six domains of the FAST, including the cognitive domain (Pillai's trace = 0.25; F(1,57) = 19.1; p < 0.001) and leisure time (Pillai's trace = 0.11; F(1,57) = 7.15; p = 0.01). Regarding the secondary outcomes, a significant group × time interaction in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale changes was detected (Pillai's trace = 0.08; F(1,62) = 5.6; p = 0.02).
This preliminary study suggests that the integrative approach represents a promising cost-effective therapy to improve psychosocial functioning and residual depressive symptoms in patients suffering from BD.
Based on the Job Demands Resources Model (JD-R), this study investigates the mediating role of meaningful work and work engagement in the association between job resources and employees' intention to stay. A cross-sectional study was conducted through an online survey of 217 employees from different organizations in Puerto Rico. We examined a serial mediation analysis through structural equation modeling. The results indicate that job resources are positively related to meaningful work, while meaningful work is positively associated with work engagement. Further, job resources are indirectly associated with the intention to stay through meaningful work and work engagement. This study contributes to understanding the role of meaningful work and engagement in the JD-R model's motivational-driven process and how these mechanisms promote positive work outcomes in terms of the retention of human capital. Designing jobs and strategies at the workplace to develop meaning and engagement seems crucial to retain employees.
The El Salt site (Alcoi, Alicante, Spain) is one of the latest Neanderthal sites in the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula. The disappearance of this human group is controversial and needs detailed studies from different research areas. Taphonomy is essential to establish how representative is a fossil assemblage of the past living organisms that produced it and to interpret the formation process of the fossil site. In the case of El Salt, we have analyzed the micromammal assemblages of Units X and V, which contain fossils of Neanderthals and/or evidence of their activity. In contrast with previous identifications of the little owl (Athene noctua), our detailed taphonomic study shown here allows us to conclude that the main predator involved in the production of the micromammal assemblages was the European eagle owl (Bubo bubo). This is an opportunistic predator whose feeding preferences and behavior reflect the abundance of local micromammalian species, which can therefore provide a representation of past ecosystems near El Salt. The taphonomic information provided by this study also indicates the absence of transport and reworking processes, and reinforces previous paleoecological interpretations, suggesting an increase of aridity at the top of El Salt sequence that coincided with the local disappearance of Neanderthals.
Old age constitutes a vulnerable stage for developing gambling-related problems. The aims of the study were to identify patterns of gambling habits in elderly participants from the general population, and to assess socio-demographic and clinical variables related to the severity of the gambling behaviours. The sample included N = 361 participants aged in the 50–90 years range. A broad assessment included socio-demographic variables, gambling profile and psychopathological state. The percentage of participants who reported an absence of gambling activities was 35.5 per cent, while 46.0 per cent reported only non-strategic gambling, 2.2 per cent only strategic gambling and 16.3 per cent both non-strategic plus strategic gambling. Gambling form with highest prevalence was lotteries (60.4%), followed by pools (13.9%) and bingo (11.9%). The prevalence of gambling disorder was 1.4 per cent, and 8.0 per cent of participants were at a problematic gambling level. Onset of gambling activities was younger for men, and male participants also reached a higher mean for the bets per gambling-episode and the number of total gambling activities. Risk factors for gambling severity in the sample were not being born in Spain and a higher number of cumulative lifetime life events, and gambling severity was associated with a higher prevalence of tobacco and alcohol abuse and with worse psychopathological state. Results are particularly useful for the development of reliable screening tools and for the design of effective prevention programmes.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic syndrome characterized by heterogeneous clinical manifestations, and knowing this variability can help to develop tailored treatments. To understand better the heterogeneity of FM the present cross-sectional study analyzed the role of several physical symptoms (pain, fatigue and poor sleep quality) and cognitive-affective variables related to pain (pain catastrophizing, pain vigilance, self-efficacy in pain management, and pain acceptance) in the configuration of clinical profiles. A sample of 161 women with FM fulfilled an interview and several self-report measures to explore physical symptoms, cognitive-affective variables, disability and psychopathology. To establish FM groups a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed. The findings revealed three clusters that differed in the grouping variables, Wilks’ λ = .17, F(14, 304) = 31.50, p < .001, ηp2 = .59. Group 1 (n = 72) was characterized by high physical and psychological affectation, Group 2 (n = 19) by low physical affectation and high pain self-efficacy, and Group 3 (n = 70) by moderate physical affectation and low pain catastrophizing. The external validation of the clusters was confirmed, Wilks’ λ = .72, F(4, 314) = 14.09, p < .001, ηp2 = .15, showing Group 1 the highest levels of FM impact and psychopathological distress. Considering the distinctive clinical characteristics of each subgroup therapeutic strategies addressed to the specific needs of each group were suggested. Assessing FM profiles may be key for a better understanding and approach of this syndrome.
The Monitoring Studies (MS) program, the approach developed by RedETS to generate postlaunch real-world evidence (RWE), is intended to complement and enhance the conventional health technology assessment process to support health policy decision making in Spain, besides informing other interested stakeholders, including clinicians and patients. The MS program is focused on specific uncertainties about the real effect, safety, costs, and routine use of new and insufficiently assessed relevant medical devices carefully selected to ensure the value of the additional research needed, by means of structured, controlled, participative, and transparent procedures. However, despite a clear political commitment and economic support from national and regional health authorities, several difficulties were identified along the development and implementation of the first wave of MS, delaying its execution and final reporting. Resolution of these difficulties at the regional and national levels and a greater collaborative impulse in the European Union, given the availability of an appropriate methodological framework already provided by EUnetHTA, might provide a faster and more efficient comparative RWE of improved quality and reliability at the national and international levels.
Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is defined as incompetence of the tricuspid valve (TV), which produces the movement of blood flow from the right ventricle (RV) to the right atrium during systole. Pathological TR is functional in nearly 80–90 percent of cases, secondary to volume and/or pressure overload in the RV. Surgical intervention of TR is associated with mortality rates of 10 percent. Transcatheter therapy interventions (TTI) can be an alternative for severe TR. The aim of this study is to assess effectiveness and safety of TTI.
A systematic review was carried out. The scientific literature search was performed in major medical databases. Studies analyzing the efficacy and safety of the devices were included. Outcomes related with mortality rates, TR volume reduction, echocardiographic findings and adverse events were analyzed. The methodological quality of the studies was analyzed with the Canadian Institute of Health Economics Quality Appraisal Checklist.
Nine studies comprising 557 patients were included (two first-in-human studies, one retrospective, five single arm prospective studies and one international registry). The studies were small with short follow up. The outcome of procedural success ranged from 80 to 100 percent. Mortality rates at 30 days were lower than 5 percent. Improvements in reduction of TR, European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE), heart failure symptoms or quality of life scores were observed in all studies.
TTI for moderate-severe TR show significant reduction of annulus dimension, improvements in heart failure symptoms and quality of life, which are maintained in mid-term follow up. TTI present lower rates of major serious adverse events. No differences were observed between different TTI devices in terms of procedural success, mortality or safety. Randomized studies comparing TTI with optimal medical therapy are needed to confirm the preliminary clinical impact in patients with severe TR, and define aspects such as patient selection, risk factors associated with procedural success or mortality rates.
Endometrial and ovarian cancer are the first and second leading causes of death from gynecological cancer in Spain. Survival is generally determined by stage at diagnosis, but there is no test currently used for early detection of both tumor types. PapSEEK is a test developed to diagnose endometrial and ovarian cancer by detecting aneuploidies and somatic mutations commonly associated with both tumor types through DNA next-generation sequencing (NGS) of liquid from Papanicolaou test (Pap smear) samples. The objective of this work was to assess the effectiveness and safety of PapSEEK.
PapSEEK was identified by the Early Awareness and Alert System, “SINTESIS-new technologies”, of the Agencia de Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias in Spain (AETS-ISCIII). An early assessment of the technology was conducted through a literature search of the following databases: PubMed, Embase, the Web of Science, the Trip database, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and The Cochrane Library. Clinical studies on the effectiveness and safety of PapSEEK published up to February 2019 were reviewed.
The evidence comprised proof of concept and diagnostic accuracy studies, which showed good preliminary results regarding the accuracy of the test for diagnosing endometrial cancer (sensitivity ranged from 0.81 to 0.93), but not for ovarian cancer (sensitivity ranged from 0.33 to 0.45). The specificity for both tumor types ranged from 0.99 to 1.00. Since PapSEEK uses a sampling method that is routinely used in clinical practice (the Pap smear), no evidence was found in the literature on the safety of the test.
PapSEEK is a novel technology developed to diagnose endometrial and ovarian cancer by means of DNA-NGS of Pap smear samples. The identified studies showed good preliminary results regarding the ability of the test to diagnose endometrial cancer, but not ovarian cancer. PapSEEK may be useful as a screening tool for endometrial cancer. However, further research on PapSEEK is needed to prospectively evaluate its diagnostic accuracy, compare it with current tests used in the early diagnosis of both cancer types, evaluate its effect on patient survival and disease progression, and measure its economic impact.
Epigenetics is an innovative discipline that aims to provide biomarkers to aid in early diagnosis, patient risk classification, or outcome prediction. The identification of therapeutic targets is of particular interest in cancer therapy for selecting groups of patients who may benefit most from an intervention. Understanding the relationships between the immune system and tumor cells has led to new immunotherapy-based therapies that provide a promising alternative to conventional cancer therapies. The aim of this study was to conduct an early assessment of a novel epigenetic signature (EPIMMUNE) that could predict response to programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor immunotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
We identified the novel epigenetic signature EPIMMUNE through the Early Awareness and Alert System, “SINTESIS-new technologies” of the Agencia de Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias in Spain (AETS-ISCIII). A literature search of PubMed, Embase, the Web of Science, the Trip database, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, The Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases was conducted. Clinical studies on EPIMMUNE published in English or Spanish up to August 2019 were reviewed.
Only one retrospective study was found. Identification of EPIMMUNE was accomplished through interrogation of the DNA methylation status of CpG sites in 142 samples from adult patients with NSCLC who were treated with PD-1 inhibitors. EPIMMUNE was defined by 301 CpG sites whose methylation status was significantly associated with clinical response (progression-free and overall survival). No studies assessing the long-term clinical utility, impact on therapeutic decision making, or economic implications of EPIMMUNE were found.
The EPIMMUNE signature could provide an accurate and valid biomarker for identifying patients with NSCLC who may benefit from treatment with PD-1 inhibitors. However, the technology is under development, and there is only a single study on detecting the EPIMMUNE epigenetic profile and identifying the DNA methylation profiles associated with increased survival after PD-1 inhibitor therapy. More diagnostic accuracy studies and prospective, long-term trials are needed to evaluate the clinical impact this technology may have on therapeutic decision making. Given the limited evidence available, further research is needed before the technology can be disseminated.
Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) is a minimally invasive therapeutic option for stage IV or terminal stage peritoneal carcinomatosis, which has a very low survival rate. PIPAC is aimed at patients whose only therapeutic alternative is systemic chemotherapy because they are unable to undergo other treatments, such as cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. PIPAC consists of a micro-pump connected to a double-contrast injector, which is used to apply cytotoxic agents laparoscopically using pressurized aerosols. The objective of this study was to update the evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of PIPAC.
A systematic review (SR) was conducted by searching PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library database. ClinicalTrials.gov and the European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials Database were consulted to identify registered clinical studies. All articles published up to April 2019 were considered for inclusion. Abstracts, letters, single case studies, non-clinical and animal studies, and studies published in languages other than English or Spanish were excluded. Validated checklists were used to assess the quality of the included studies.
Seventeen studies were included (three SRs and fourteen cases series) and eighteen ongoing clinical trials were identified. The quality of the SRs and cases series studies was low and moderate, respectively. Adverse events were categorized according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events as grade 1–2 (mild-moderate: 11% to 40% of patients) and grade 3–4 (severe-fatal: 0% to 37% of patients). Overall complete histological regression according to the Peritoneal Regression Grading Score and the Peritoneal Cancer Index occurred in at least sixty percent of patients. The survival time ranged from 11 to 16 months.
Effectiveness data for PIPAC were promising, with high carcinomatosis regression rates. Most studies showed a moderate safety profile, with generally mild to moderate complications (nausea, abdominal pain, and vomiting). This is an advantage over systemic chemotherapy, which has severe systemic side effects. Economic evaluation studies are needed to estimate the cost effectiveness and cost utility of this technology. Diffusion of PIPAC is expected, but the criteria used to select patients in the studies carried out so far must be considered, as well as the need to follow strict safety protocols for preventing leakage of aerosolized cytotoxic drugs.
Brown bears Ursus arctos were historically persecuted and almost eradicated from southern Europe in the twentieth century as a result of hunting and direct persecution. The effects of human-induced mortality were exacerbated by other threats, such as habitat loss and fragmentation, due to the expansion of human populations. As a result, nowadays there are only small fragmented populations of bears in southern Europe. Brown bears in the Cantabrian (north-western Spain), Apennine (central Italy), and Pindos (north-western Greece) mountains represent three examples of small and threatened bear populations in human-modified landscapes. Most of their range is characterized by high human densities, widespread agricultural activities, livestock raising and urban development, connected by dense networks of transport infrastructures. This has resulted in a reduction of continuous habitat suitable for the species. Here, we summarize the past and present histories and fates of these three populations as examples on how the coexistence of bears and people in human-modified landscapes can take different turns depending on human attitudes.
Older subjects are susceptible to develop gambling problems, and researchers have attempted to assess the mechanisms underlying the gambling profile in later life. The objective of this study was to identify the main stressful life events (SLE) across the lifespan which have discriminative capacity for detecting the presence of gambling disorder (GD) in older adults. Data from two independent samples of individuals aged 50+ were analysed: N = 47 patients seeking treatment at a Pathological Gambling Outpatient Unit and N = 361 participants recruited from the general population. Sexual problems (p < 0.001), exposure to domestic violent behaviour (p < 0.001), severe financial problems (p = 0.002), alcohol or drug-related problems (p = 0.004) and extramarital sex (p < 0.001) were related to a higher risk of GD, while getting married (p = 0.005), moving to a new home (p = 0.003) and moving to a new city (p = 0.006) decreased the likelihood of disordered gambling. The accumulated number of SLE was not a predictor of the presence of GD (p = 0.732), but patients who met clinical criteria for GD reported higher concurrence of SLE in time than control individuals (p < 0.001). Empirical research highlights the need to include older age groups in evidence-based policies for gambling prevention, because these individuals are at high risk of onset and/or progression of behavioural addiction-related problems such as GD. The results of this study may be useful for developing reliable screening/diagnostic tools and for planning effective early intervention programmes aimed to reduce the harm related to the onset and evolution of problem gambling in older adults.
Telemedicine uses information and communication technologies to provide services in the field where the distance is a critical factor. The aim of the present study is to describe the experience of a synchronous telemedicine between two hospitals in Spain and Angola.
This is a retrospective observational study of all synchronous telemedicine sessions conducted between the Hospital Nossa Senhora da Paz in Angola and the Vall d'Hebron University Hospital in Spain from January 2011 to December 2014.
Seventy-two cases were discussed in the telemedicine sessions. The average age of patients was 18.02 (SD 13.75) years and mostly women (54.38 percent). Reasons to discuss the cases were 46.47 percent doubts in the diagnosis and therapeutic management, 15.47 percent were purely formative cases, and only 8.45 percent treatment doubt. At the time of presentation, 29 percent of the patients were already diagnosed, 95 percent of whom with infectious disease diagnostic, and from the undiagnosed patients 36 percent presented a febrile syndrome.
This study shows the viability of synchronous telemedicine between European and African countries without an excessively sophisticated technology.
Background: Hand hygiene (HH) is the most important measure for preventing healthcare-associated infections. The objective is to gain insight into the evolution of the degree of compliance with recommendations (DCR) on HH and its associated factors in the surgical areas of a tertiary-care hospital. Methods: This observational, cross-sectional study, was repeated over time, with direct observation of the DCR on HH during the daily activity of healthcare workers in surgical areas: general surgery, urology, vascular surgery, traumatology, neurosurgery, thoracic surgery, heart surgery, pediatric surgery, otorhinolaryngology, gynecology and obstetrics, ophthalmology. Over 14 years (from 2005 to 2018), 15,946 HH opportunities were registered, together with different additional variables (age, sex, professional position, surgical area ). The 2 test was used to study the association and the crude, and adjusted odds ratios were used to quantify its magnitude. Results: The DCR on HH in surgical areas was 49.7% (95% CI, 48.9%–50.5%), and in the group of nonsurgical areas it was 53.4% (95% CI, 53.1%–54.1%). The area with the highest degree of compliance was urology (56.7%; 95% CI, 53.9%–59.6%), and the area with the lowest degree of compliance was traumatology (43.3%; 95% CI, 40.4%–46.2%). Some associated factors were the indications after an activity has been performed (58.6%; aOR, 2.7; 95% CI, 2.5–2.9) and the availability of pocket-size alcohol-based disinfectant (63.8%; aOR, 2.4; 95% CI, 2.2–2.5). Conclusions: The DCR on HH in surgical areas is lower than in other hospital areas, and there is still some margin for improvement. We have identified some modifiable factors that have an independent association with HH compliance in surgical areas. Focusing on them will increase compliance with HH with the ultimate goal of reducing healthcare-associated infections.
Background: The introduction of new technologies into the medical field has the duality of improvement and concerns about correct usage and cleaning. Mobile phones are used by healthcare professionals (HCPs) in the work place, and there is not an official policy about their use in health environment. Methods: We asked 60 intensive care unit (ICU) HCPs from 2 units (the burn unit and the internal medicine unit) to participate in an electronic survey about mobile phone usage and hand hygiene compliance; we also cultured the hands and mobile phones of the participants. Unfortunately, 13 HCPs did not participate. Susceptibility testing of the strains was conducted, as well as molecular testing. Results: Overall, 47 HCPs responded to the inquiry: 19% were nurses (9 of 47), 19% were resident physicians (9 of 47), 17% were nursery technicians (8 of 47), 17% were physiotherapists (8 of 47), 13% were cleaning staff (6 of 47), 11% were consultants (5 of 47), and 4% were technicians (2 of 47). Moreover, 26 of 47 participants (55%) were woman and 21 (45%) were men. From all HCP categories, 39 of 47 respondents (83%) reported that they had optimal hand hygiene compliance. However, 92% of respondents had a colonized hand and 90% had a colonized mobile phone. Also, 44 of 47 HCPs (94%) reported that the took their personal mobile phone into the workplace; 40 (85%) reported that they used it during the work day and 35 (74%) reported that they cleaned it. However, 8 HCPs (26%) reported that they had never cleaned the device. All of the HCPs understood that mobile phones can harbor bacteria, and 27 of 47 HCPs (57.45%) indicated that they use 70% alcohol to clean their mobile phones. In contrast, the first choice for hand hygiene was water and soap in 51% of HCPs (24 of 47). Also, 3 HCPs did not have any colonization in the hand culture but had healthcare-associated infection (HAI) pathogens in the mobile phone culture. Conclusions: A policy regarding mobile phone usage in the healthcare setting should be in place, and cleaning of electronic devices in hospitals should be standardized.
Background:Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is the third etiologic agent of healthcare associated infections, and the most frequent pathogen in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). In critical care units is associated with high mortality, long hospital stay, and high healthcare-associated costs. We evaluated the effectiveness of filter placement in the water taps in critical care units to prevent the occurrence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIa) by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods: This experimental study was both cross-over and open-label in nature. We included patients admitted for >24 hours in critical care units over 24 months. The study was divided into 4 periods of 6 months each. We divided the study into 2 groups: patients in units with filters and patients in units without filters. We compared the incidence density of P. aeruginosa HAIs (number of cases divided by the number of person days) according the ECDC definition of case criteria between the groups. The 2 test was used, and the magnitude of the association was calculated as a rate ratio with a 95% confidence interval, adjusted using a Poisson regression model. Results: Overall, 1,132 patients were included in the study: 595 in units with water tap filters and 537 in units without water tap filters. HAI incidence among patients in units with water tap filters was 5.3 per 1,000 person days stay; without water tap filters, HAI incidence was 4.7 per 1,000 person days stay (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.47–1.90). Conclusions: The preliminary results of this study indicate a a lower incidence of P. aeruginosa HAIs in units with filters placed in water taps than in units without filters.
Background: Estimating the burden of intestinal colonization with antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria (AR-GNB) is critical to understanding their global epidemiology and spread. We aimed to determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, intestinal colonization due to AR-GNB in population-based hospital and community settings in Chile. Methods: Between December 2018 and May 2019, we enrolled randomly selected hospitalized adults in 4 tertiary-care public hospitals (Antofagasta, Santiago, Curico and Puerto Montt), and adults residing in a community-based cohort in the rural town of Molina. Following informed consent, we collected rectal swabs and epidemiological information through a standardized questionnaire. Swabs were plated onto MacConkey agar with 2 µg/mL ciprofloxacin or ceftazidime. All recovered morphotypes were identified, and antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed via disk diffusion. The primary outcome was the prevalence of colonization with fluoroquinolone (FQ)- or third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)–resistant GNB. The secondary outcome was the prevalence of colonization with multidrug-resistant (MDR) GNB, defined as GNB resistant to ≥3 antibiotic classes. Categories were not mutually exclusive. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to describe risk factors for colonization with these categories. Results: In total, 775 hospitalized adults and 357 community participants were enrolled, with a median age of 60 years (IQR, 42–72) and 55 years (IQR, 48–62) years, respectively. Among hospitalized participants, the prevalence of colonization with FQ- or 3GC-resistant GNB was 47% (95% CI, 43%–50%) and 41% (95% CI, 38%–45%), respectively, whereas the prevalence of MDR-GNB colonization was 27% (95% CI, 24%–31%). In the community setting, the prevalence of colonization with either FQ-, 3GC-resistant GNB, or MDR-GNB was 40% (95% CI, 34%–45%), 29% (95% CI, 24%– 34%), and 5% (95% CI, 3%–8%), respectively. Independent risk factors for hospital MDR-GNB colonization included the hospital of admission, unit of hospitalization (intensive care units carried the highest risk), in-hospital antimicrobial exposure, comorbidities (Charlson index), and length of stay. In the community setting, recent antibiotic exposure (<3 months) predicted colonization with either FQ- or 3GC-resistant GNB, and alcohol consumption was inversely associated with MDR GNB colonization. Conclusions: A high burden of colonization with AR-GNB was observed in this sample of hospitalized and community-dwelling adults in Chile. The high burden of colonization with GNB resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as FQ and 3GC found in community dwellers, suggests that the community may be a relevant source of antibiotic resistance. Efforts to understand relatedness between resistant strains circulating in the community and the hospital are needed.
This study aims to generate country-specific norms for two episodic memory tasks and a verbal fluency test among middle-aged and older adults using nationally representative data from nine low-, middle-, and high-income countries.
Data from nine countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America were analyzed (n = 42,116; aged 50 years or older). Episodic memory was assessed with the word list memory (three trials of immediate recall) and word list recall (delayed recall). Verbal fluency was measured through the animal naming task. Multiple linear regression models with country-specific adjustments for gender, age, education, and residential area were carried out.
Both age and education showed high influence on test performance (i.e. lower cognitive performance with increasing age and decreasing years of education, respectively), while the effect of sex and residential area on cognitive function was neither homogeneous across countries nor across cognitive tasks.
Our study provided sex-, age-, education-, and residential area-specific regression-based norms that were obtained from one of the largest normative study worldwide on verbal recall and fluency tests to date. Findings derived from this study will be especially useful for clinicians and researchers based at countries where cognitive norms are limited.
Mesoscale features within the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) are known to influence zooplankton dynamics. Here we describe the composition of the zooplankton assemblage off shelf during summer in relation to environmental conditions, with emphasis on hyperiid amphipods and salps. Zooplankton samples were collected in summer of 2015 and 2016 in the central and southern GOM and in the Yucatan Channel in 2015. Two anticyclonic gyres were present in the north and less intense coupled cyclonic-anticyclonic gyres in the south. Zooplankton abundances differed temporally and spatially. Copepods were the dominant group (>55% of total abundance), while several less abundant taxa contributed to inter-annual and spatial differences. Amphipods and salps comprised <3% and their abundances were positively correlated. Fifty-six hyperiid and 10 salp species were identified. The dominant amphipod species were: Lestrigonus bengalensis (summer 2015), Anchylomera blossevillei and Primno spp. juveniles (summer 2016). Dominant salp species were Ihlea punctata, Iasis cylindrica and Thalia spp. Lower salp and amphipod species richness and abundance were associated with anticyclonic structures. Spatial and temporal differences were partly associated with symbiotic relationships between the groups. This study supports previous evidence of high spatial and temporal variability in zooplankton abundance in off-shelf waters of the GOM.
We present our recent experience with a 6-month-old infant with a personal history of short bowel syndrome that presented with fever, cyanosis, and cardiogenic shock secondary to severe pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure without pulmonary thromboembolism. He did not present signs of toxin-mediated disease or Kawasaki disease. He was finally diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. If this presentation is confirmed in future research, the severe cardiovascular impairment in children with COVID-19 could be also attributable to the primary pulmonary infection, not only to a multisystem inflammatory syndrome but also in children without heart disease.