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Despite the much improved therapeutic approaches for cancer treatment that have been developed over the past 50 years, cancer remains a major cause of mortality globally. Considerable epidemiological and experimental evidence has demonstrated an association between ingestion of food and nutrients with either an increased risk for cancer or its prevention. There is rising interest in exploring agents derived from natural products for chemoprevention or for therapeutic purposes. Honey is rich in nutritional and non-nutritional bioactive compounds, as well as in natural antioxidants, and its potential beneficial function in human health is becoming more evident. A large number of studies have addressed the anti-cancer effects of different types of honey and their phenolic compounds using in vitro and in vivo cancer models. The reported findings affirm that honey is an agent able to modulate oxidative stress and has anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulatory and anti-metastatic properties. However, despite its reported anti-cancer activities, very few clinical studies have been undertaken. In the present review, we summarise the findings from different experimental approaches, including in vitro cell cultures, preclinical animal models and clinical studies, and provide an overview of the bioactive profile and bioavailability of the most commonly studied honey types, with special emphasis on the chemopreventive and therapeutic properties of honey and its major phenolic compounds in cancer. The implications of these findings as well as the future prospects of utilising honey to fight cancer will be discussed.
Glyphosate resistance has evolved worldwide. Glyphosate is also the most used herbicide in Spain, and current changes in herbicide usage patterns can increase the risk of glyphosate resistance development. The objective of this study was to assess the glyphosate sensitivity of different selected weed species important in Spanish maize (Zea mays L.) fields. To this end, dose–response experiments were conducted under controlled conditions in a growth chamber to examine variation in glyphosate sensitivity among populations of five grass weed species and eight broadleaf weed species that are commonly found in the maize fields in Castilla y León, the biggest maize-growing region in Spain. The glyphosate doses that caused growth reduction by 50% (GR50) were calculated for each weed population. No populations were resistant to glyphosate. In addition, baseline values of glyphosate sensitivity were determined for each weed species. The GR50 baseline values ranged from 10.25 to 53.23 g ai ha−1 for the dicotyledonous weed species and from 16.05 to 66.34 g ai ha−1 for the monocotyledonous weed species. The ratio between the GR50 values of the least and most sensitive populations was used to determine the SI50 (sensitivity index at 50% growth reduction) for each weed species. The SI50 values showed a 1.4- to 3.3-fold difference in sensitivity for dicotyledonous weed species and 1.4- to 2.4-fold difference for monocotyledonous weed species. The sensitivity index was also calculated as the ratio between the GR50 values of the least sensitive population and the baseline GR50 value estimated for a range of susceptible populations (SI50b). SI50b values showed a 1.2- to 1.6-fold difference in sensitivity for dicotyledonous weed species and 1.1- to 1.2-fold difference for monocotyledonous weed species. The sensitivity data generated in this study provide a reference for determining time-dependent changes in glyphosate sensitivity in the commonly found weeds in the maize fields of Castilla y Léon.
This study analyzes the variables that influence international competitiveness, both in industrialized and developing countries. Based on rich archival resources, the study explains the intense international competition between European and North American publishers in pursuing Latin American book markets throughout the course of the First Global Economy. The case of Spain provides an opportunity to study the patterns of the internationalization process of a nonleading country and compare them with the strategies developed by German, U.S., French, and British companies. This research sheds light on the importance of social networks and national cultural influences in the internationalization of this singular industry.
The present study investigated the effects of nutritional programming through parental feeding on offspring performance and expression of selected genes related to stress resistance in a marine teleost. Gilthead seabream broodstock were fed diets containing various fish oil (FO)/vegetable oil ratios to determine their effects on offspring performance along embryogenesis, larval development and juvenile on-growing periods. Increased substitution of dietary FO by linseed oil (LO) up to 80 % LO significantly reduced the total number of eggs produced by kg per female per spawn. Moreover, at 30 d after hatching, parental feeding with increasing LO up to 80 % led to up-regulation of the fatty acyl desaturase 2 gene (fads2) that was correlated with the increase in conversion rates of related PUFA. Besides, cyclo-oxygenase 2 (cox2) and TNF-α (tnf-α) gene expression was also up-regulated by the increase in LO in broodstock diets up to 60 or 80 %, respectively. When 4-month-old offspring were challenged with diets having different levels of FO, the lowest growth was found in juveniles from broodstock fed 100 % FO. An increase in LO levels in the broodstock diet up to 60LO raised LC-PUFA levels in the juveniles, regardless of the juvenile’s diet. The results showed that it is possible to nutritionally programme gilthead seabream offspring through the modification of the fatty acid profiles of parental diets to improve the growth performance of juveniles fed low FO diets, inducing long-term changes in PUFA metabolism with up-regulation of fads2 expression. The present study provided the first pieces of evidence of the up-regulation of immune system-related genes in the offspring of parents fed increased FO replacement by LO.
A multitude of risk/protective factors for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders have been proposed. We conducted an umbrella review to summarize the evidence of the associations between risk/protective factors and each of the following disorders: specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, and to assess the strength of this evidence whilst controlling for several biases.
Publication databases were searched for systematic reviews and meta-analyses examining associations between potential risk/protective factors and each of the disorders investigated. The evidence of the association between each factor and disorder was graded into convincing, highly suggestive, suggestive, weak, or non-significant according to a standardized classification based on: number of cases (>1000), random-effects p-values, 95% prediction intervals, confidence interval of the largest study, heterogeneity between studies, study effects, and excess of significance.
Nineteen systematic reviews and meta-analyses were included, corresponding to 216 individual studies covering 427 potential risk/protective factors. Only one factor association (early physical trauma as a risk factor for social anxiety disorder, OR 2.59, 95% CI 2.17–3.1) met all the criteria for convincing evidence. When excluding the requirement for more than 1000 cases, five factor associations met the other criteria for convincing evidence and 22 met the remaining criteria for highly suggestive evidence.
Although the amount and quality of the evidence for most risk/protective factors for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders is limited, a number of factors significantly increase the risk for these disorders, may have potential prognostic ability and inform prevention.
This study analyzes the relationship between the two intrapersonal perfectionism dimensions (i.e., Self-Oriented Perfectionism-Critical, SOP-C, and Self-Oriented Perfectionism-Strivings, SOP-S) and the components of aggressive behavior (cognitive, emotional and motor) in a sample of 804 (48.3% females) Spanish students between the ages of 8 and 11 (M = 9.57; DE = 1.12). The Spanish versions of the SOP-C and SOP-S subscales of the Child/Adolescent Perfectionism Scale and the Aggression Questionnaire were used. Students with high SOP-C scored significantly higher (p < .001) than their peers with low SOP-C on all components of aggressive behavior. The magnitude of these differences (Cohen’s d index) ranged from .40 to .59. In contrast, non-significant statistical differences were found between students with high and low SOP-S. Moreover, logistic regression analysis revealed that SOP-C significantly and positively predicted high Hostility, Anger and Physical and Verbal Aggression, whereas none of these components were significantly predicted by SOP-S (95% CI). Results are discussed, taking into account the debate on the conceptualization and nature of intrapersonal perfectionism.
A 6–18 GHz high-power amplifier (HPA) design in GaN on SiC technology is presented. This power amplifier consists of a two-stage corporate amplifier with two and four transistors, respectively. It has been fabricated on UMS using their 0.25 µm gate length process, GH25. A study of the suitable attachment method and measurement on wafer and on jig are detailed. This HPA exhibits an averaged output power of 39.2 dBm with a mean gain of 11 dB in saturation and a 24.5% maximum power added efficiency in pulse mode operation with a duty cycle of 10% with a 25 µs pulse width.
In the southern Philippines, human-induced disasters, such as terrorist attacks, have caused unprecedented damage to the economic, social, and political life of the attacked and nearby areas. More gruesome is the direct impacts to human life and wellbeing. This study focuses on the 2017 Marawi armed siege, the longest urban battle in the Philippines. The 154-day siege took a heavy toll, including 1,132 deaths among militants, soldiers, police, and civilians, and caused the displacement of some 400,000 local inhabitants. The city is in total ruins leaving its economic center as “Ground 0.” The aftermath of the siege demands major interventions to address physical and economic damages, but more importantly, to ameliorate the human impacts caused by the brutalities of war. The displaced peoples need to recover from health impacts – psychological trauma, as well as social, environmental, and cultural. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) 2015-2030 states that DRR requires society-wide engagement. Everyone, regardless of their age, gender, ethnicity, religion, or socio-economic position, should be involved in thinking, planning, and deciding about DRR. Studies on youth participation in disaster recovery are still scarce.
This current research aims to help fill this gap and to contribute to providing the much-needed evidence base for the formulation and implementation of future policies to enable and improve youth participation in post-disaster initiatives in the Philippines.
Initial findings reveal that the following are crucial factors for youth mobilization: (1.) avenues for volunteering, (2.) access to adequate resources and support including information, funds, manpower, and social capital, (3.) opportunities for the youth to participate in the form of events or activities, (4.) legal mandate for youth participation in local, national, and international policies and frameworks. The study also looked at barriers or challenges to youth participation and their motivations.
We prove that if
-triple and not a Cartan factor of rank two, then
satisfies the Mazur–Ulam property, that is, every surjective isometry from the unit sphere of
onto the unit sphere of another real Banach space
extends to a surjective real linear isometry from
Traditional knowledge gained through daily interactions with the environment can yield insights into processes at temporal or spatial scales that may be overlooked by conventional scientific research. Ninety interviews were conducted with riverine people in the vicinity of Anavilhanas National Park, Tapajós–Arapiuns Extractive Reserve and Tapajós National Forest in the Brazilian Amazon, with the aim to increase knowledge of the feeding habits of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis and evaluate its conservation status in contrasting protected areas. In Anavilhanas respondents identified 31 plant species consumed by the manatee, of which vines had the highest cognitive salience index value (the summed importance of each plant species), even though they are available to manatees only during the high-water season. In the Tapajós region 37 plant species were identified, with submerged species with floating leaves being the main component of the manatee's diet. Although hunting has declined it still occurs in Anavilhanas, which is susceptible to environmental crimes because of its proximity to urban centres. Manatee hunting seems to be infrequent in the Tapajós region, having little impact on the population. Given the broad knowledge within the local community about the Amazonian manatee, involvement of riverine people in manatee conservation activities is fundamental for reducing threats and increasing conservation effectiveness.
Whole eggs are rich sources of several micronutrients. However, it is not well known how egg consumption contributes to overall nutrient adequacy and how it may relate to CVD risk factors. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine how whole egg consumption contributes to nutrient intakes and to assess its association with CVD risk factors in US adults.
The study was conducted using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2012, a nationally representative survey of the US civilian population.
Adults who completed two dietary recalls and provided information on relevant sociodemographic factors were included in the study (n 21 845).
Approximately 73 % of adults were classified as whole egg consumers. Egg consumption was associated with greater intakes of protein, saturated fat, mono- and polyunsaturated fats, Fe, Zn, Ca, Se, choline, and several other vitamins and minerals. Egg consumption was associated with a higher likelihood of meeting or exceeding recommendations for several micronutrients. Egg intake was positively associated with dietary cholesterol consumption, but not with serum total cholesterol (TC) when adjusted for multiple potential confounders. In multiple linear regression analyses, TAG, TAG:HDL-cholesterol and TC:HDL-cholesterol were significantly lower with greater egg consumption. Egg consumption had no significant relationship with LDL-cholesterol or C-reactive protein, but was associated with higher BMI and waist circumference.
Whole eggs are important dietary contributors of many nutrients and had either beneficial or non-significant associations with most CVD risk biomarkers examined.
Patient involvement in drug evaluation decision making is increasing. The aim of the current study was to develop a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework that would enable the inclusion of the patient perspective in the selection of appropriate criteria for MCDAs being used in the value assessments of oncologic drugs.
A literature review was conducted to identify and define criteria used in drug assessments from patient perspectives. The Evidence and Value: Impact on Decision Making methodology was used to develop a MCDA framework. Identified criteria were discussed by a sample of oncology patient association representatives who decided which criteria were important from patient perspectives. Selected criteria were rated by importance. The preliminary MCDA framework was tested through the assessment of a hypothetical oncology treatment. A discussion was carried out to agree on a final pilot MCDA framework.
Twenty-two criteria were extracted from the literature review. After criteria discussion, sixteen criteria remained. The most important criteria were comparative patient reported outcomes (PRO), comparative efficacy and disease severity. After the discussion generated by the scoring of the hypothetical oncology treatment, the final pilot MCDA framework included seven quantitative criteria (“disease severity”, “unmet needs”, “comparative efficacy / effectiveness”, “comparative safety / tolerability”, “comparative PROs”, “contribution of oncological innovation”) and one contextual criterion (“population priorities and access”).
The present study developed a pilot reflective MCDA framework that could increase patient's capability to participate in the decision-making process by providing systematic drug assessments from the patient perspective.
Rate of treatment non-compliance in schizophrenia, like in other chronic diseases. Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics have proven to be more effective than orals in reducing the number of recurrences. Although the perception of LAIs has changed over the last few years with the introduction of new molecules, there might be prejudices regarding these formulations within the mental health professionals community. The exercise of imagining how and with which antipsychotic you would like to treat yourself or a close relative in case of suffering from schizophrenia, can help to emerge true prescription preferences.
The objective of the present work is to assess the psychiatrists antipsychotics prescribing preferences for schizophrenia, in the hypothetical case they were patients suffering a 2nd/3rd relapse. With this purpose, we performed an on-line survey in a sample of psychiatrists and trainees fromSpain.
Results showed that election of LAIs were less frequent for in Self-prescription scenario, both for the 2nd and 3rd hypothetical recurrence. Also, psychiatrist who chose LAIs for their patients are more likely to choose orals for themselves (p=0.039; p<0.001 for 2nd and 3rd recurrence respectively). The most preferred LAI for both patients and self-prescription was aripiprazole once-monthly (60% and 87% respectively).
Interestingly, nearly 70% of psychiatrist choosing a LAI different form Aripiprazole, would change the prescription for themselves; and those choosing aripiprazole once-monthly for their patients were more likely to maintain it for themselves (p<0.001). Practitioners changing from LAIs to orals in the self-treatment scenario perceive LAIs as a more coercive measure (p<0.01), being the degree of coercitivity perceived the only variable associated with a change in prescription's decisions (p=0.002). Curiously, LAIs associated coercitivity was significantly lower for oncologist vs psychiatrists (p<0.001). The level of weight gain, metabolic problems, extrapyramidal symptomatology, sexual dysfunction, sedation and cognitive problems perceived by psychiatrists is significantly lower for Aripiprazole than for the rest of LAIs (p <0.01 for all comparisons), with a comparable perceived efficacy (mean=3.95 and 4 out of possible 5, p=0.7). In light of our results, this is partially explained by a perception of LAIs as coercive measures, in contrast with perception of similar treatments for the control of somatic diseases. The fact of imagining a scene where oneself is the one suffering from a disease, shows preferences in the use of psychotropic drugs for the management of schizophrenia where the profile of side-effects and efficacy has a more equitable balance: starting from comparable effectiveness, we prefer treatments associated with a perception of fewer side-effects
Long-acting injectable antipsychotic therapies may offer benefits over oral antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia. However, there is still a lack of real-world studies assessing the effectiveness of these therapies.
This study aimed to explore the safety, tolerability, and treatment response of aripiprazole monohydrate (AOM) once monthly in non-acute but symptomatic adult patients switched from previous therapy with frequently used oral or injectable atypical antipsychotics.
This was a post hoc analysis of a prospective, interventional, single-arm, open-label, 6-month study.
The patients (N=54) were switched to aripiprazole monohydrate once-monthly (AOM) from daily oral treatment or monthly injectable treatment with either aripiprazole (n=25), olanzapine (n=7), paliperidone extended-release (PP1M) (n=10), quetiapine (n=4), or risperidone (n=8). In all groups, mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total (p=0.0001) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scores improved significantly (p=0.0001). A reduction of ≥50% reduction of BPRS total-score and a CGI severity-score ≤4 in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score were observed in 16.7% (aripiprazole), 21.2% (olanzapine), 35.1% (PP1M), 27.3% (quetiapine), and 37.2% (risperidone) of patients. The patients showed significant improvements involving safety features as they experienced significant overall weight loss (p=0.0001) and prolactine decrease (risperidone p=0.0001, paliperidone extended-release p=0.0001). AOM once-monthly was well tolerated, presenting no new safety signals. Patient also reported an overall significant improvement on their quality of life measured with the Quality of Life Rating Scale (QLS) (p=0.0004) as well as in sexual functioning PRSexDQ-SALSEX (p=0.0001). In addition, the all cause treatment discontinuation rate after6-month follow-up was small (n=3; 5,55%)
These data illustrate that stable, non-acute but symptomatic patients either on oral antipsychotic therapy or under monthly antipsychotic treatment may show clinically meaningful improvement of psychotic symptoms, tolerability involving relevant side effects and quality of life perception. The findings are limited by the naturalistic study design; thus, further studies are required to confirm the current findings.
Familiarity, emotionality, motor activity, memorability, and vividness of visual imagery ratings, on 7-point scales, were collected for 536 Spanish action-related sentences, including a corpus of 439 phrases originally normed in Swedish, German, and Croatian (Arar & Molander, 1996; Molander & Arar, 1998; Molander, Arar, Mavrinac, & Janig, 1999) and 97 new sentences describing actions usually performed using different body postures and face or hand movements. These norms constitute the only available set of ratings for action sentences in Spanish including those dimensions to date, and they allow for the design of studies aimed at empirically exploring the relationship between action, language, and cognition with well-controlled materials in Spanish-speaking samples of participants.
The aim of this study was to develop and to assess a specific Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) framework to evaluate new drugs in an hospital pharmacy and therapeutics committee (P&TC) setting.
A pilot criteria framework was developed based on the EVIDEM (Evidence and Value: Impact on DEcisionMaking) framework, together with other relevant criteria, and assessed by a group of P&TC's members. The weighting of included criteria was done using a 5-point weighting technique. Two drugs were chosen by evaluation: an orphan-drug for Gaucher disease, and a nonorphan drug for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Evidence matrices were developed, and value contribution of each drug was evaluated by P&TC's members. An agreed final framework was obtained through a discussion between the P&TC's members.
After criteria assessment, the pilot framework included eight quantitative criteria: “disease severity,” “unmet needs,” “comparative efficacy/effectiveness,” “comparative safety/tolerability,” “comparative patient-reported outcomes,” “comparative cost consequences-cost of treatment,” “comparative cost consequences-other medical costs,” and “quality of evidence”; and one contextual criterion: “opportunity costs and affordability.” The most valued criteria were: “comparative safety/tolerability,” “disease severity,” and “comparative efficacy/effectiveness.” When assessing the drugs most valued characteristics of the MCDA were the possibility that all team may contribute to drug assessment by means of scoring the matrices and the discussion to reach a consensus in drug positioning and value decision making.
The reflective MCDA would integrate quantitative and qualitative criteria relevant for a P&TC setting, allowing reflective discussions based on the criteria weighting score.