Collagen microstructure is closely related to the mechanical properties of tissues and affects cell migration through the extracellular matrix. To study these structures, three-dimensional (3D) in vitro collagen-based gels are often used, attempting to mimic the natural environment of cells. Some key parameters of the microstructure of these gels are fiber orientation, fiber length, or pore size, which define the mechanical properties of the network and therefore condition cell behavior. In the present study, an automated tool to reconstruct 3D collagen networks is used to extract the aforementioned parameters of gels of different collagen concentration and determine how their microstructure is affected by the presence of cells. Two different experiments are presented to test the functionality of the method: first, collagen gels are embedded within a microfluidic device and collagen fibers are imaged by using confocal fluorescence microscopy; second, collagen gels are directly polymerized in a cell culture dish and collagen fibers are imaged by confocal reflection microscopy. Finally, we investigate and compare the collagen microstructure far from and in the vicinities of MDA-MB 23 cells, finding that cell activity during migration was able to strongly modify the orientation of the collagen fibers and the porosity-related values.